1921
Volume 83, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We evaluated the completeness of West Nile fever (WNF) surveillance within the U.S. public health system. We surveyed laboratory and surveillance programs on policies, practices, and capacities for testing, confirmation, and reporting (collectively called ascertainment) from 2003 through 2005. We calculated syndrome ascertainment ratios by dividing WNF counts by neuroinvasive disease counts; separately, we performed multilevel modeling. Jurisdictions were more likely to ascertain at least one WNF cases per West Nile neuroinvasive disease case when ≤ 1 testing restrictions existed (odds ratio [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–46.4), when conducting ≥ 4 activities to enhance reporting (OR = 9.3, 95% CI = 1.6–54.8), and when ≥ 5.0 staff per million residents were dedicated to arboviral surveillance (OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.0–40.3). Ascertainment of WNF was less likely among Blacks (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99) and Hispanics (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48–0.98) than among Whites. Ascertainment was more complete when testing and reporting were enhanced, but differentially incomplete for minorities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0161
2010-10-05
2017-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/4/795.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0161&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Mostashari F, Bunning M, Kitsutani P, Singer D, Nash D, Cooper M, Katz N, Liljebjelke K, Biggerstaff B, Fine A, Layton M, Mullin S, Johnson A, Martin D, Hayes E, Campbell G, , 2001. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 358: 261264.[Crossref]
  2. Watson J, Pertel P, Jones R, Siston A, Paul W, Austin C, Gerber SI, , 2004. Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile fever. Ann Intern Med 141: 360365.[Crossref]
  3. Bode AV, Sejvar JJ, Pape WJ, Campbell GL, Marfin AA, , 2006. West Nile virus disease: a descriptive study of 228 patients hospitalized in a 4-county region of Colorado in 2003. Clin Infect Dis 42: 12341240.[Crossref]
  4. Patnaik JL, Harmon H, Vogt RL, , 2006. Follow-up of 2003 human West Nile virus infections, Denver, Colorado. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 11291131.[Crossref]
  5. Carson PJ, Konewko P, Wold KS, Mariani P, Goli S, Bergloff P, Crosby RD, , 2006. Long-term clinical and neuropsychological outcomes of West Nile virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 43: 723730.[Crossref]
  6. Haaland KY, Sadek J, Pergam S, Echevarria LA, Davis LE, Goade D, Harnar J, Nofchissey RA, Sewel CM, Ettestad P, , 2006. Mental status after West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 12601262.[Crossref]
  7. Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O'Leary D, Murray K, Huang A, Rosenberg A, Greenberg A, Sherman M, Wong S, Layton M, , 2001. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344: 18071814.[Crossref]
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. West Nile Virus Statistics, Surveillance, and Control. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&control.htm.
  9. Silk B, Berkelman R, , 2005. A review of strategies for enhancing the completeness of notifiable disease reporting. J Public Health Manag Pract 11: 191200.[Crossref]
  10. Malan AK, Martins TB, Hill HR, Litwin CM, , 2004. Evaluations of commercial West Nile virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM enzyme immunoassays show the value of continuous validation. J Clin Microbiol 42: 727733.[Crossref]
  11. Martin DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Allen B, Johnson AJ, Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, , 2002. Use of immunoglobulin M cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9: 544549.
  12. Kapoor H, Signs K, Somsel P, Downes FP, Clark PA, Massey JP, , 2004. Persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) IgM antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with CNS disease. J Clin Virol 31: 289291.[Crossref]
  13. Prince HE, Tobler LH, Lape-Nixon M, Foster GA, Stramer SL, Busch MP, , 2005. Development and persistence of West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in viremic blood donors. J Clin Microbiol 43: 43164320.[Crossref]
  14. Roehrig JT, Nash D, Maldin B, Labowitz A, Martin DA, Lanciotti RS, Campbell GL, , 2003. Persistence of virus-reactive serum immunoglobulin M antibody in confirmed West Nile virus encephalitis cases. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 376379.[Crossref]
  15. Doyle T, Glynn K, Groseclose S, , 2002. Completeness of notifiable infectious disease reporting in the United States: an analytical literature review. Am J Epidemiol 155: 866874.[Crossref]
  16. Konowitz P, Petrossian G, Rose D, , 1984. The underreporting of disease and physicians' knowledge of reporting requirements. Public Health Rep 99: 3135.
  17. Krause G, Ropers G, Stark K, , 2005. Notifiable disease surveillance and practicing physicians. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 442445.[Crossref]
  18. Weiss B, Strassburg M, Fannin S, , 1988. Improving disease reporting in Los Angeles County: trial and results. Public Health Rep 103: 415421.
  19. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2004. CSTE Position Statement: Revision of the National Surveillance Case Definition of Diseases Caused by Neurotropic Domestic Arboviruses, Including the Addition to the NNDSS of Non-Neuroinvasive Illnesses Caused by These Viruses. Available at: http://www.cste.org/ps/2004pdf/04-ID-01-final.pdf.
  20. Hook EB, Regal RR, , 1995. Capture-recapture methods in epidemiology: methods and limitations. Epidemiol Rev 17: 243264.[Crossref]
  21. Groseclose SL, Zaidi AA, DeLisle SJ, Levine WC, St Louis ME, , 1999. Estimated incidence and prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the United States, 1996. Sex Transm Dis 26: 339344.[Crossref]
  22. De Quadros C, Cutts F, Smith P, , 1994. Strategies for disease control/eradication in the Americas. , eds. Vaccination and World Health. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley and Sons, 1734.
  23. Inhorn SL, Wilcke BW, Jr Downes FP, Adjanor OO, Cada R, Ford JR, , 2006. A comprehensive laboratory services survey of state public health laboratories. J Public Health Manag Pract 12: 514521.[Crossref]
  24. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2005. Assessing the Capacity for the Surveillance, Prevention, and Control of West Nile Virus Infection in State and Large City/County Health Departments. Available at: www.cste.org/pdffiles/2005/WNVReport10.pdf.
  25. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2004. 2004 National Assessment of Epidemiologic Capacity: Findings and Recommendations. Available at: http://www.cste.org/Assessment/ECA/pdffiles/ECAfinal05.pdf.
  26. Beitsch L, Brooks R, Grigg M, Menachemi N, , 2006. Structure and functions of state public health agencies. Am J Public Health 96: 167172.[Crossref]
  27. Beitsch L, Grigg M, Menachemi N, Brooks R, , 2006. Roles of local public health agencies within the state public health system. J Public Health Manag Pract 12: 232241.[Crossref]
  28. Little R, Rubin D, , 2002. Statistical Analysis with Missing Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.[Crossref]
  29. Raghunathan T, Solenberger P, Van Hoewyk J, , 2001. Ann Arbor: IVEware: Imputation and Variance Estimation Software. Available at: www.isr.umich.edu/src/smp/ive.
  30. Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS, , 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Second edition. London: Sage Publications.
  31. Chowers M, Lang R, Nassar F, Ben-David D, Giladi M, Rubinshtein E, , 2001. Clinical characteristics of the West Nile fever outbreak, Israel, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 675678.[Crossref]
  32. Charles CZ, , 2003. The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annu Rev Sociol 29: 167207.[Crossref]
  33. Schafer JL, , 1999. Multiple imputation: a primer. Stat Methods Med Res 8: 315.[Crossref]
  34. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2005. 2005 National Healthcare Disparities Report (AHRQ Publication No. 06-0017). Available at: www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr05/nhdr05.pdf.
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Racial disparities in nationally notifiable diseases–United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54: 911.
  36. Institute of Medicine, 2002. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  37. Murray K, Baraniuk S, Resnick M, Arafat R, Kilborn C, Cain K, Shallenberger R, York TL, Martinez D, Hellums JS, Hellums D, Malkoff M, Elgawley N, McNeely W, Khuwaja SA, Tesh RB, , 2006. Risk factors for encephalitis and death from West Nile virus infection. Epidemiol Infect 134: 13251332.[Crossref]
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999. Reporting race and ethnicity data–National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance, 1994–1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48: 305312.
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001. Updated guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems: recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. MMWR Recomm Rep 50 (RR-13).
  40. Raghunathan T, Lepkowski J, Van Hoewyk J, Solenberger P, , 2001. A multivariate technique for multiply imputing missing values using a sequence of regression models. Surv Methodol 27: 8595.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0161
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0161
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental appendices 1-3

  • Received : 14 Mar 2010
  • Accepted : 08 Jun 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error