Volume 83, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



There has never been a locally transmitted outbreak of mosquito-borne disease in New Zealand, but the risk of an outbreak occurring is increasing with on-going interceptions of exotic mosquito vectors across its border, increasing traffic of goods and passengers, higher numbers of viremic travelers arriving, and local, regional, and global environmental change. The risk posed to New Zealand by chikungunya virus is potentially high because of the transmissibility of this virus in subtropical climates, compounded by a population that is predominantly immunologically naive to exotic arboviruses. However, risk reduction in New Zealand should not be considered in isolation but must be viewed within a wider South Pacific context. In this report, we discuss the potential threat posed by chikungunya to the region, focusing in particular on New Zealand, and re-emphasizing the need for a South Pacific–wide approach towards mosquito-borne disease prevention.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Vazeille M, Moutailler S, Coudrier D, Rousseaux C, Khun H, Huerre M, Thiria J, Dehecq J-SB, Fontenille D, Schuffenecker I, Despres P, Failloux A-B, , 2007. Two chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Réunion (Indian Ocean) exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito Aedes albopictus . PLoS ONE 2: e1168.[Crossref]
  2. Enserink M, , 2007. Chikungunya: no longer a third world disease. Science 318: 1860.[Crossref]
  3. Gérardin P, Barau G, Michault A, Bintner M, Randrianaivo H, Choker G, Lenglet Y, Touret Y, Bouveret A, Grivard P, Roux KL, Blanc S, Schuffenecker I, Couderc T, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Lecuit M, Robillard P-Y, , 2008. Multidisciplinary prospective study of mother-to-child chikungunya virus infections on the Island of La Réunion. PLoS Med 5: e60.[Crossref]
  4. Charrell RN, Lamballerie X, Raoult D, , 2007. Chikungunya outbreaks—the globalization of vectorborne diseases. N Engl J Med 356: 769771.[Crossref]
  5. van den Hurk AF, Hall-Mendelin S, Pyke AT, Smith GA, Mackenzie JS, , 2010. Vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for chikungunya virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 489495.[Crossref]
  6. Vazeille M, Jeannin C, Martin E, Schaffner F, Failloux AB, , 2008. Chikungunya: a risk for Mediterranean countries? Acta Trop 105: 200202.[Crossref]
  7. Dubrulle M, Mousson L, Moutailler S, Vazeille M, Failloux A-B, , 2009. Chikungunya virus and Aedes mosquitoes: saliva is infectious as soon as two days after oral infection. PLoS ONE 4: e5895.[Crossref]
  8. de Lamballerie X, Leroy E, Charrel R, Ttsetsarkin K, Higgs S, Gould E, , 2008. Chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come? Virol J 5: 33.[Crossref]
  9. Tsetsarkin KA, Vanlandingham DL, McGee CE, Higgs S, , 2007. A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential. PLoS Pathog 3: 18951906.[Crossref]
  10. Angelini R, Finarelli AC, Angelini P, Po C, Petropulacos K, Silvi G, Macini P, Fortuna C, Venturi G, Magurano F, , 2007. Chikungunya in north-eastern Italy: a summing up of the outbreak. Eurosurveillance 12: E071122.
  11. Weinstein P, Ravi S, , 2008. The failure of colonial ‘distancing’: changing representations of the 2005–06 chikungunya epidemic in Réunion, France. Singap J Trop Geogr 29: 221235.[Crossref]
  12. Pialoux G, Gaüzère BA, Jauréguiberry S, Strobel M, , 2007. Chikungunya, an epidemic arbovirosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 319327.[Crossref]
  13. Higgs S, , 2006. The 2005–2006 chikungunya epidemic in the Indian Ocean. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6: 115116.[Crossref]
  14. Senanayake MP, Senanayake SM, Vidanage KK, Gunasena S, Lamabadusuriya SP, , 2009. Vertical transmission in chikungunya infection. Ceylon Med J 54: 4750.
  15. Touret Y, Randrianaivo H, Michault A, Schuffenecker I, Kauffmann E, Lenglet Y, Barau G, Fourmaintraux A, , 2006. Early maternal-fetal transmission of the chikungunya virus. Presse Med 35: 1656.[Crossref]
  16. Derraik JGB, , 2004. Exotic mosquitoes in New Zealand: a review of species intercepted, their pathways and ports of entry. Aust N Z J Public Health 28: 433444.[Crossref]
  17. Derraik JGB, , 2006. A scenario for invasion and dispersal of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in New Zealand. J Med Entomol 43: 18.[Crossref]
  18. Derraik JGB, Maguire T, , 2005. Mosquito-borne diseases in New Zealand: has there ever been an indigenously acquired infection? N Z Med J 118: 1670.
  19. Derraik JG, Calisher CH, , 2004. Is New Zealand prepared to deal with arboviral diseases? Aust N Z J Public Health 28: 2730.[Crossref]
  20. Derraik JGB, Slaney D, , 2007. Anthropogenic environmental change, mosquito-borne diseases and human health in New Zealand. EcoHealth 4: 7281.[Crossref]
  21. Derraik JGB, Snell AE, , 2004. Notes on daytime biting catches of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in native forest sites in the Auckland region. The Weta 28: 1419.
  22. Bessaud M, Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino BA, Tock F, Merle O, Colpart JJ, Dehecq JS, Girod R, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Glass PJ, , 2006. Chikungunya virus strains, Reunion Island outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 16041606.[Crossref]
  23. Russell RC, , 1995. Arboviruses and their vectors in Australia: an update on the ecology and epidemiology of some mosquito-borne arboviruses. Rev Med Vet Entomol 83: 141158.
  24. Derraik JG, , 2009. The association between habitat size, brushtail possum density and the mosquito fauna of native forests in the Auckland Region, New Zealand. EcoHealth 6: 229238.[Crossref]
  25. Watson TM, Kay BH, , 1997. Is Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) an urban vector of Ross River virus in southeast Queensland? Arbovirus Res Aust 7: 305307.
  26. Rezza G, Nicoletti L, Angelini R, Romi R, Finarelli AC, Panning M, Cordioli P, Fortuna C, Boros S, Magurano F, Silvi G, Angelini P, Dottori M, Ciufolini MG, Majori GC, Cassone A, , 2007. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370: 18401846.[Crossref]
  27. Delatte H, Gimonneau G, Triboire A, Fontenille D, , 2009. Influence of temperature on immature development, survival, longevity, fecundity, and gonotrophic cycles of Aedes albopictus, vector of chikungunya and dengue in the Indian Ocean. J Med Entomol 46: 3341.[Crossref]
  28. de Wet N, Ye W, Hales S, Warrick R, Woodward A, Weinstein P, , 2001. Use of a computer model to identify potential hotspots for dengue fever in New Zealand. N Z Med J 114: 420422.
  29. Vazeille M, Mousson L, Failloux AB, , 2009. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104: 632635.[Crossref]
  30. Mourya DT, , 1987. Absence of transovarial transmission of chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res 85: 593595.
  31. Powers AM, Logue CH, , 2007. Changing patterns of chikungunya virus: re-emergence of a zoonotic arbovirus. J Gen Virol 88: 23632377.[Crossref]
  32. Diallo M, Thonnon J, Traore-Lamizana M, Fontenille D, , 1999. Vectors of chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 281286.
  33. Guilherme JM, Christine G-L, Legall F, Nakoume E, Vincent J, , 1996. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the Central African Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 3133.[Crossref]
  34. Druce JD, Johnson DF, Tran T, Richards MJ, Birch CJ, , 2007. Chikungunya virus infection in traveler to Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 509510.[Crossref]
  35. Derraik JG, Slaney D, Nye ER, Weinstein P, , 2009. Vector-borne disease prevention: the need for a joint South Pacific approach. N Z Med J 122: U3707.
  36. Derraik JG, , 2004. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding in artificial habitats at the Wellington Zoo. The Weta 28: 2831.
  37. Epstein PR, , 2007. Chikungunya fever resurgence and global warming. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 403404.
  38. Aaskov JG, Mataika JU, Lawrence GW, Rabukawaqa V, Tucker MM, Miles JAR, Dalglish DA, , 1981. An epidemic of Ross River virus infection in Fiji, 1979. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30: 10531059.
  39. Miles JA, Laird M, , 1984. On the spread of Ross River virus in the islands of the South Pacific. , ed. Commerce and the Spread of Pests and Disease Vectors. New York: Praeger Publishers, 209224.
  40. House of Lords, 2008. Diseases Know No Frontiers: How Effective Are Intergovernmental Organisations in Controlling their Spread? Volume I. London: Select Committee on Intergovernmental Organisations. First Report of Session 2007–2008.
  41. Snell AE, Sirvid PJ, , 2005. Mosquitoes of the Chatham Islands: notes on Opifex chatamicus (=Ochlerotatus chathamicus) (Dumbleton) (Diptera: Culicidae). The Weta 29: 68.
  42. Snell AE, , 2005. Identification keys to larval and adult female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of New Zealand. NZ J Zool 32: 99110.[Crossref]
  43. Belkin JN, , 1968. Mosquito Studies (Diptera: Culicidae) VII. The Culicidae of New Zealand. Contrib Am Entomol Inst 3: 1182.
  44. Derraik JG, Snell AE, Slaney D, , 2005. Vertical distribution of mosquitoes in native forest in Auckland, New Zealand. J Vector Ecol 30: 334336.
  45. Holder P, Browne G, Bullians M, , 1999. The mosquitoes of New Zealand and their animal disease significance. Surveillance 26: 1215.
  46. Ross RW, Austin FJ, Miles JAR, Maguire T, , 1963. An arbovirus isolated in New Zealand. Aust J Sci 26: 2021.
  47. Dumbleton LJ, , 1968. A synopsis of the New Zealand mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) and a key to the larvae. Tuatara 16: 167179.
  48. Snell AE, Derraik JG, McIntyre M, , 2005. Maorigoeldia argyropus Walker (Diptera: Culicidae): is this another threatened endemic species? NZ Entomol 28: 9599.[Crossref]
  49. Hayes JC, , 1974. Biology of Maorigoeldia argyropus (Walker) (Diptera, Culicidae). Auckland, New Zealand: Department of Zoology, University of Auckland.
  50. Maguire T, , 1994. Do Ross River and dengue viruses pose a threat to New Zealand? N Z Med J 107: 448450.
  51. Snell AE, , 2005. The discovery of the exotic mosquito Ochlerotatus australis and the endemic Opifex fuscus (Diptera: Culicidae) on North East Island, Snares Islands. The Weta 30: 1013.
  52. Lee W, Bugledish E-MA, Bugledish E-MA, , 1999. Culicidae. , ed. Diptera: Nematocera. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 161239.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Feb 2010
  • Accepted : 27 Jun 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error