1921
Volume 82, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6–16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0030
2010-06-01
2017-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/82/6/1106.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0030&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Wiersinga WJ, van der Poll T, White NJ, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2006. Melioidosis: insights into the pathogenicity of Burkholderia pseudomallei . Nat Rev Microbiol 4: 272282.[Crossref]
  2. Cheng AC, Currie BJ, , 2005. Melioidosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 383416.[Crossref]
  3. Currie BJ, Dance DA, Cheng AC, , 2008. The global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and melioidosis: an update. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102 (Suppl 1): S1S4.[Crossref]
  4. Wuthiekanun V, Peacock SJ, , 2006. Management of melioidosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 4: 445455.[Crossref]
  5. Chaowagul W, White NJ, Dance DA, Wattanagoon Y, Naigowit P, Davis TM, Looareesuwan S, Pitakwatchara N, , 1989. Melioidosis: a major cause of community-acquired septicemia in northeastern Thailand. J Infect Dis 159: 890899.[Crossref]
  6. Suputtamongkol Y, Hall AJ, Dance DA, Chaowagul W, Rajchanuvong A, Smith MD, White NJ, , 1994. The epidemiology of melioidosis in Ubon Ratchatani, northeast Thailand. Int J Epidemiol 23: 10821090.[Crossref]
  7. Leelarasamee A, Trakulsomboon S, Kusum M, Dejsirilert S, , 1997. Isolation rates of Burkholderia pseudomallei among the four regions in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28: 107113.
  8. Chierakul W, Rajanuwong A, Wuthiekanun V, Teerawattanasook N, Gasiprong M, Simpson A, Chaowagul W, White NJ, , 2004. The changing pattern of bloodstream infections associated with the rise in HIV prevalence in northeastern Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 678686.[Crossref]
  9. Dance DA, Davis TM, Wattanagoon Y, Chaowagul W, Saiphan P, Looareesuwan S, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ, , 1989. Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Pseudomomas pseudomallei in children. J Infect Dis 159: 654660.[Crossref]
  10. Phetsouvanh R, Phongmany S, Newton P, Mayxay M, Ramsay A, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ, , 2001. Melioidosis and Pandora's box in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Clin Infect Dis 32: 653654.[Crossref]
  11. Wuthiekanun V, Mayxay M, Chierakul W, Phetsouvanh R, Cheng AC, White NJ, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2005. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil within the Lao People's Democratic Republic. J Clin Microbiol 43: 923924.[Crossref]
  12. Wuthiekanun V, Pheaktra N, Putchhat H, Sin L, Sen B, Kumar V, Langla S, Peacock SJ, Day NP, , 2008. Burkholderia pseudomallei antibodies in children, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 301303.[Crossref]
  13. Overtoom R, Khieu V, Hem S, Cavailler P, Te V, Chan S, Lau P, Guillard B, Vong S, , 2008. A first report of pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102 (Suppl 1): S21S25.[Crossref]
  14. Peacock SJ, Chieng G, Cheng AC, Dance DA, Amornchai P, Wongsuvan G, Teerawattanasook N, Chierakul W, Day NP, Wuthiekanun V, , 2005. Comparison of Ashdown's medium, Burkholderia cepacia medium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for clinical isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei . J Clin Microbiol 43: 53595361.[Crossref]
  15. Wuthiekanun V, Anuntagool N, White NJ, Sirisinha S, , 2002. Short report: a rapid method for the differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis . Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 759761.
  16. Amornchai P, Chierakul W, Wuthiekanun V, Mahakhunkijcharoen Y, Phetsouvanh R, Currie BJ, Newton PN, van Vinh Chau N, Wongratanacheewin S, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2007. Accuracy of Burkholderia pseudomallei identification using the API 20NE system and a latex agglutination test. J Clin Microbiol 45: 37743776.[Crossref]
  17. Vesaratchavest M, Tumapa S, Day NP, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Holden MT, White NJ, Currie BJ, Spratt BG, Feil EJ, Peacock SJ, , 2006. Nonrandom distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei clones in relation to geographical location and virulence. J Clin Microbiol 44: 25532557.[Crossref]
  18. Godoy D, Randle G, Simpson AJ, Aanensen DM, Pitt TL, Kinoshita R, Spratt BG, , 2003. Multilocus sequence typing and evolutionary relationships among the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei . J Clin Microbiol 41: 20682079.[Crossref]
  19. McCombie RL, Finkelstein RA, Woods DE, , 2006. Multilocus sequence typing of historical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates collected in southeast Asia from 1964 to 1967 provides insight into the epidemiology of melioidosis. J Clin Microbiol 44: 29512962.[Crossref]
  20. Cheng AC, Godoy D, Mayo M, Gal D, Spratt BG, Currie BJ, , 2004. Isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from northern Australia are distinct by multilocus sequence typing, but strain types do not correlate with clinical presentation. J Clin Microbiol 42: 54775483.[Crossref]
  21. Chheng K, Tarquinio S, Wuthiekanun V, Sin L, Thaipadungpanit J, Amornchai P, Chanpheaktra N, Tumapa S, Putchhat H, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2009. Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with pediatric infection in Cambodia. PLoS One 4: e6630.[Crossref]
  22. Simpson AJ, Suputtamongkol Y, Smith MD, Angus BJ, Rajanuwong A, Wuthiekanun V, Howe PA, Walsh AL, Chaowagul W, White NJ, , 1999. Comparison of imipenem and ceftazidime as therapy for severe melioidosis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 381387.[Crossref]
  23. Chierakul W, Anunnatsiri S, Short JM, Maharjan B, Mootsikapun P, Simpson AJ, Limmathurotsakul D, Cheng AC, Stepniewska K, Newton PN, Chaowagul W, White NJ, Peacock SJ, Day NP, Chetchotisakd P, , 2005. Two randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime alone versus ceftazidime in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of severe melioidosis. Clin Infect Dis 41: 11051113.[Crossref]
  24. Chaowagul W, Chierakul W, Simpson AJ, Short JM, Stepniewska K, Maharjan B, Rajchanuvong A, Busarawong D, Limmathurotsakul D, Cheng AC, Wuthiekanun V, Newton PN, White NJ, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2005. Open-label randomized trial of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, and chloramphenicol compared with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline for maintenance therapy of melioidosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 40204025.[Crossref]
  25. Ashdown LR, , 1988. In vitro activities of the newer beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas pseudomallei . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32: 14351436.[Crossref]
  26. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2000. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing—14th Informational Supplement M100-S14. Wayne, PA: NCCLS.
  27. Genentech Production Information, 2010. Rocephin® (ceftriaxone) full prescribing information. Available at: http://www.rocheusa.com/products/rocephin/pi.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2010.
  28. Chaowagul W, Simpson AJ, Suputtamongkol Y, White NJ, , 1999. Empirical cephalosporin treatment of melioidosis. Clin Infect Dis 28: 1328.[Crossref]
  29. Wuthiekanun V, Desakorn V, Wongsuvan G, Amornchai P, Cheng AC, Maharjan B, Limmathurotsakul D, Chierakul W, White NJ, Day NP, Peacock SJ, , 2005. Rapid immunofluorescence microscopy for diagnosis of melioidosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12: 555556.
  30. Pongrithsukda V, Simakachorn N, Pimda J, , 1988. Childhood melioidosis in northeastern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19: 309316.
  31. Lumbiganon P, Viengnondha S, , 1995. Clinical manifestations of melioidosis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 136140.[Crossref]
  32. Lumbiganon P, Chotechuangnirun N, Kosalaraksa P, , 2004. Clinical experience with treatment of melioidosis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 23: 11651166.
  33. How SH, Ng KH, Jamalludin AR, Shah A, Rathor Y, , 2005. Pediatric melioidosis in Pahang, Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 60: 606613.
  34. Sam IC, Puthucheary SD, , 2006. Melioidosis in children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ann Trop Paediatr 26: 219224.[Crossref]
  35. Kandasamy Y, Norton R, , 2008. Paediatric melioidosis in north Queensland, Australia. J Paediatr Child Health 44: 706708.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0030
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0030
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jan 2010
  • Accepted : 02 Mar 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error