Volume 82, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To determine the role of species as causes of acute febrile illness in humans from Thailand, we used a novel strategy of co-cultivation of blood with eukaryotic cells and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of -specific DNA products. species were identified in 14 blood clots from febrile patients. Sequence analysis showed that more than one-half of the genotypes identified in human patients were similar or identical to homologous sequences identified in rodents from Asia and were closely related to , , and . The remaining genotypes belonged to , , and . Among the positive febrile patients, animal exposure was common: 36% reported owning either dogs or cats and 71% reported rat exposure during the 2 weeks before illness onset. The findings suggest that rodents are likely reservoirs for a substantial portion of cases of human infections in Thailand.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Relman DA, Falkow S, LeBoit PE, Perkocha LA, Min KW, Welch DF, Slater LN, , 1990. The organism causing bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatic, and fever and bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. N Engl J Med 323: 15731580.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Fredricks DN, Relman DA, , 1996. Sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of Koch's postulates. Clin Microbiol Rev 9: 1833. [Google Scholar]
  3. Kosoy M, Morway C, Sheff KW, Bai Y, Colborn J, Chalcraft L, Dowell S, Peruski L, Maloney S, Baggett H, Sutthirattana S, Sidhirat A, Maruyama S, Kabeya H, Chomel B, Kasten R, Popov V, Robinson J, Kruglov A, Petersen L, , 2008. Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a newly recognized pathogen isolated from three human patients from Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 46: 772775.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Paitoonpong L, Chitsomkasem A, Chantrakooptungool S, Kanjanahareutai S, Tribuddharat C, Srifuengfung S, , 2008. Bartonella henselae: first reported isolate in a human in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 39: 123129. [Google Scholar]
  5. Maruyama S, Boonmar S, Morita Y, Sakai T, Tanaka S, Yamaguchi F, Kabeya H, Katsube Y, , 2000. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii among healthy individuals in Thailand. J Vet Med Sci 62: 635637.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Maruyama S, Sakai T, Morita Y, Tanaka S, Kabeya H, Boonmar S, Poapolathep A, Chalarmchaikit T, Chang C, Kasten RW, Chomel BB, Katsube Y, , 2001. Prevalence of Bartonella species and 16s rRNA gene types of Bartonella henselae from domestic cats in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 783787. [Google Scholar]
  7. Castle KT, Kosoy M, Lerdthusnee K, Phelan L, Bai Y, Gage KL, Leepitakrat W, Monkanna T, Khlaimanee N, Chandranoi K, Jones J, Coleman R, , 2004. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 429433. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bai Y, Kosoy M, Lerdthusnee K, Peruski L, Richardson J, , 2009. Prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of Bartonella strains cultured from rodents from 17 provinces in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 811816.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Pradutkanchana J, Pradutkanchana S, Kemapanmanus M, Wuthipum N, Silpapojakul K, , 2003. The etiology of acute pyrexia of unknown origin in children after a flood. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34: 175178. [Google Scholar]
  10. Leelarasamee A, Chupaprawan C, Chenchittikul M, Udompanthurat S, , 2004. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 87: 464472. [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis RD, Fukuda MM, McDaniel P, Welch K, Nisalak A, Murray CK, Gray M, Uthaimongkol N, Buathong N, Sriwichai S, Phasuk R, Yingyuen K, Mathavarat C, Miller RS, , 2006. Causes of fever in adults on the Thai-Myanmar border. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 108113. [Google Scholar]
  12. Suttinont C, Losuwanaluk K, Niwatayakul K, Hoontrakul S, Intaranongpai W, Silpasakorn S, Suwancharoen D, Panlar P, Saisongkorh W, Rolain JM, Raoult D, Suputtamongkol Y, , 2006. Causes of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in rural Thailand: results of a prospective observational study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 363370.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Norman AF, Regnery R, Jameson P, Greene C, Krause DC, , 1995. Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. J Clin Microbiol 33: 17971803. [Google Scholar]
  14. La Scola B, Zeaiter Z, Khamis A, Raoult D, , 2003. Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol 11: 318321.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Daly JS, Worthington MG, Brenner DJ, Moss CW, Hollis DG, Weyant RS, Steigerwalt AG, Weaver RE, Daneshvar MI, O'Connor SP, , 1993. Rochalimaea elizabethae sp. nov. isolated from a patient with endocarditis. J Clin Microbiol 31: 872881. [Google Scholar]
  16. Heller R, Riegel P, Hansmann Y, Delacour G, Bermond D, Dehio C, Lamarque F, Monteil H, Chomel B, Piemont Y, , 1998. Bartonella tribocorum sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rats. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48: 13331339.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Gundi V, Davoust B, Khamis A, Boni M, Raoult D, La Scola B, , 2004. Isolation of Bartonella rattimassiliensis sp. nov. and Bartonella phoceensis sp. nov. from European Rattus norvegicus . J Clin Microbiol 42: 38163818.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Welch DF, Carroll KC, Hofmeister EK, Persing DH, Robison DA, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ, , 1999. Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice. J Clin Microbiol 37: 25982601. [Google Scholar]
  19. Baker BA, , 1946. A rickettsial infection in Canadian voles. J Exp Med 84: 3750.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Bai Y, Kosoy MY, Maupin GO, Tsuchiya KR, Gage KL, , 2002. Genetic and ecological characteristics of Bartonella communities in rodents in southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 622627. [Google Scholar]
  21. Bai Y, Montgomery S, Sheff K, Chowdhury M, Breiman R, Kabeya H, Kosoy M, , 2007. Bartonella strains in small mammals from Dhaka, Bangladesh, related to Bartonella in America and Europe. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 567570. [Google Scholar]
  22. Billeter SA, Miller MK, Breitschwerdt EB, Levy MG, , 2008. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers. J Med Entomol 45: 176179.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Kosoy M, Regnery R, Tzianabos T, Marston E, Jones D, Green D, Maupin G, Olson J, Childs J, , 1997. Distribution, diversity and host specificity of Bartonella in rodents from the southeastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 578588. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kosoy M, Murray M, Gilmore R, Bai Y, Gage K, , 2003. Bartonella strains obtained from ground squirrels are identical to Bartonella washoensis isolated from a human patient. J Clin Microbiol 41: 645650.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Jardine C, Appleyard G, Kosoy M, McColl D, Chirino-Trejo M, Wobeser G, Leighton D, , 2005. Rodent-associated Bartonella in Saskatchewan, Canada. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 402409.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Fenollar F, Sire S, Raoult D, , 2005. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis as an agent of blood culture-negative endocarditis in a human. J Clin Microbiol 43: 945947.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Kirillov MI, Markov AP, Lopyrev IV, Pankratova VN, Levitskii SA, Bashkirov VN, Smirnov GB, Kruglov AN, Osadchaia VA, Frolova GB, Barmina GV, Morozova OA, Kosoy MY, , 2007. Molecular genetic methods of typing of the Bartonella . Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol 1: 815. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Dec 2009
  • Accepted : 03 Mar 2010
  • Published online : 04 Jun 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error