Volume 83, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In 2003, 44 U.S. Marines were evacuated from Liberia with either confirmed or presumed malaria. An outbreak investigation showed that only 19 (45%) used insect repellent, 5 (12%) used permethrin-treated clothing, and none used bed netting. Adherence with weekly mefloquine (MQ) was reported by 23 (55%). However, only 4 (10%) had serum MQ levels high enough to correlate with protection (> 794 ng/mL), and 9 (22%) had evidence of steady-state kinetics (MQ carboxy metabolite/MQ > 3.79). Tablets collected from Marines met USP identity and dissolution specifications for MQ. Testing failed to identify isolates with MQ resistance. This outbreak resulted from under use of personal protective measures and inadequate adherence with chemophrophylaxis. It is essential that all international travelers make malaria prevention measures a priority, especially when embarking to regions of the world with high transmission intensity such as west Africa.

“Good doctors are of no use without good discipline. More than half the battle against disease is not fought by doctors, but by regimental officers. It is they who see that the daily dose of mepacrine (anti-malarial chemoprophylactic drug used in WW II) is taken…if mepacrine was not taken, I sacked the commander. I only had to sack three; by then the rest had got my meaning.”

—Lieutenant General William Slim (1891–1970), Burma Campaign, 1943


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  • Received : 19 Dec 2009
  • Accepted : 23 Apr 2010

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