1921
Volume 83, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population screening by mobile teams; a costly and labor-intensive approach. We hypothesized that blood samples collected on filter paper by village health workers and processed in a central laboratory might be a cost-effective alternative. We estimated sensitivity and specificity of micro-card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (micro-CATT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/ on filter paper samples compared with parasitology-based case classification and used the results in a Monte Carlo simulation of a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) approach. Micro-CATT and ELISA/ showed acceptable sensitivity (92.7% [95% CI 87.4–98.0%] and 82.2% [95% CI 75.3–90.4%]) and very high specificity (99.4% [95% CI 99.0–99.9%] and 99.8% [95% CI 99.5–100%]), respectively. Conditional on high sample size per lot (≥ 60%), both tests could reliably distinguish a 2% from a zero prevalence at village level. Alternatively, these tests could be used to identify individual HAT suspects for subsequent confirmation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0735
2010-08-05
2019-04-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/2/374.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0735&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Brun R, Blum J, Chappuis F, Burri C, , 2009. Human African trypanosomiasis. Lancet 375: 148159.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 1998. Control and surveillance of African trypanosomiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 881: I-114. [Google Scholar]
  3. Magnus E, Vervoort T, Van Meirvenne N, , 1978. A card-agglutination test with stained trypanosomes (C.A.T.T.) for the serological diagnosis of T.b. gambiense trypanosomiasis . Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 58: 169176. [Google Scholar]
  4. Robays J, Bilengue MM, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M, , 2004. The effectiveness of active population screening and treatment for sleeping sickness control in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health 9: 542550.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Simarro PP, Jannin J, Cattand P, , 2008. Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next? PLoS Med 5: e55.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Lutumba P, Makieya E, Shaw A, Meheus F, Boelaert M, , 2007. Human African trypanosomiasis in a rural community, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 248254.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka mia Bilenge C, Mesu VK, Molisho D, Declercq J, , 2005. Trypanosomiasis control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993–2003. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 13821388.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Odiit M, Shaw A, Welburn SC, Fevre EM, Coleman PG, McDermott JJ, , 2004. Assessing the patterns of health-seeking behaviour and awareness among sleeping-sickness patients in eastern Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98: 339348.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Van Nieuwenhove S, Betu-Ku-Mesu VK, Diabakana PM, Declercq J, Bilenge CM, , 2001. Sleeping sickness resurgence in the DRC: the past decade. Trop Med Int Health 6: 335341.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Simarro PP, Shaw AP, Dujardin B, Boelaert M, , 2005. The efficiency of different detection strategies of human African trypanosomiasis by T.b. gambiense . Trop Med Int Health 10: 347356.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Moore A, Richer M, , 2001. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 6: 342347.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Laveissiere C, Meda AH, Doua F, Sane B, , 1998. Detecting sleeping sickness: comparative efficacy of mobile teams and community health workers. Bull World Health Organ 76: 559564. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cattand P, Jannin J, Lucas P, , 2001. Sleeping sickness surveillance: an essential step towards elimination. Trop Med Int Health 6: 348361.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Lanata CF, Black RE, , 1991. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints. World Health Stat Q 44: 133139. [Google Scholar]
  15. Miezan T, Doua F, Cattand P, de Raadt P, , 1991. Evaluation of Testryp CATT applied to blood samples on filter paper and on diluted blood in a focus of trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Ivory Coast. Bull World Health Organ 69: 603606. [Google Scholar]
  16. Truc P, Lejon V, Magnus E, Jamonneau V, Nangouma A, Verloo D, Penchenier L, Buscher P, , 2002. Evaluation of the micro-CATT, CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and LATEX/T.b. gambiense methods for serodiagnosis and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis in west and central Africa. Bull World Health Organ 80: 882886. [Google Scholar]
  17. Noireau F, Force-Barge P, Cattand P, , 1991. Evaluation of Testryp CATT applied to samples of dried blood for the diagnosis of sleeping sickness. Bull World Health Organ 69: 603608. [Google Scholar]
  18. Chappuis F, Pittet A, Bovier PA, Adams K, Godineau V, Hwang SY, Magnus E, Buscher P, , 2002. Field evaluation of the CATT/Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on blood-impregnated filter papers for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in southern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 7: 942948.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Buscher P, Lejon V, Magnus E, Van Meirvenne N, , 1999. Improved latex agglutination test for detection of antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected patients. Acta Trop 73: 1120.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Penchenier L, Grebaut P, Njokou F, Eboo Eyenga V, Büscher P, , 2003. Evaluation of LATEX/T.b. gambiense for mass screening of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in Central Africa. Acta Trop 85: 3137.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Büscher P, Depla E, Magnus E, Van Meirvenne N, Sones KR, , 1995. A serodiagnostic ELISA using variable antigens of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense . , ed. 22nd Meeting of the ISCTRC, Kampala, Uganda 25–29 October 1993. Nairobi: OAU/STRC, 4655.
  22. Elrayah IE, Rhaman MA, Karamalla LT, Khalil KM, Buscher P, , 2007. Evaluation of serodiagnostic tests for T.b. gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in southern Sudan. East Mediterr Health J 13: 10981107. [Google Scholar]
  23. Woo PT, , 1970. The haematocrit centrifuge technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis. Acta Trop 27: 384386. [Google Scholar]
  24. Lumsden WH, Kimber CD, Evans DA, Doig SJ, , 1979. Trypanosoma brucei: Miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique for detection of low parasitaemias: adaptation for field use. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73: 312317.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Lejon V, Buscher P, Magnus E, Moons A, Wouters I, Van Meirvenne N, , 1998. A semi-quantitative ELISA for detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients. Acta Trop 69: 151164.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Landis JR, Koch GG, , 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159174.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Youden WJ, , 1950. Index for rating diagnostic tests. Cancer 3: 3235.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Tape TG, . University of Nebraska Medical Center. Interpreting diagnostic tests. Available at: http://darwin.unmc.edu/dxtests/ROC3.htm. Accessed April 12, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  29. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, 2010. Info by country, statistics. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/drcongo_statistics.html. Accessed January 28, 2010. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0735
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0735
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Dec 2009
  • Accepted : 13 May 2010
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error