1921
Volume 82, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (, , , and ) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (, , and ) had evidence of OPXV DNA in tissues. Additionally, 172 persons living near the trapping sites were interviewed regarding risk factors for OPXV exposure, and their sera were analyzed. Fifty-three percent had IgG against OPXV; none had IgM. Our findings suggest that several species of forest-dwelling rodents from Ghana are susceptible to naturally occurring OPXV infection, and that persons living near forests may have low-level or indirect exposure to OPXV-infected animals, possibly resulting in sub-clinical infections.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0716
2010-04-01
2017-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/82/4/746.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0716&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ladnyj ID, Ziegler P, Kima E, , 1972. A human infection caused by monkeypox virus in Basankusu Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bull World Health Organ 46: 593597.
  2. Foster SO, Brink EW, Hutchins DL, Pifer JM, Lourie B, Moser CR, Cummings EC, Kuteyi OE, Eke RE, Titus JB, Smith EA, Hicks JW, Foege WH, , 1972. Human monkeypox. Bull World Health Organ 46: 569576.
  3. Marennikova SS, Seluhina EM, Mal'ceva NN, Cimiskjan KL, Macevic GR, , 1972. Isolation and properties of the causal agent of a new variola-like disease (monkeypox) in man. Bull World Health Organ 46: 599611.
  4. Arita I, Jezek Z, Khodakevich L, Ruti K, , 1985. Human monkeypox: a newly emerged orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forests of Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 781789.
  5. Khodakevich L, Jezek Z, Kinzanzka K, , 1986. Isolation of monkeypox virus from wild squirrel infected in nature. Lancet 1: 9899.[Crossref]
  6. Breman JG, Nakano JH, Coffi E, Godfrey H, Gautun JC, , 1977. Human poxvirus disease after smallpox eradication. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 273281.
  7. Hutin YJ, Williams RJ, Malfait P, Pebody R, Loparev VN, Ropp SL, Rodriguez M, Knight JC, Tshioko FK, Khan AS, Szczeniowski MV, Esposito JJ, , 2001. Outbreak of human monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 434438.[Crossref]
  8. Khodakevich L, Szczeniowski M, Manbu-ma-Disu, Jezek Z, Marennikova S, Nakano J, Messinger D, , 1987. The role of squirrels in sustaining monkeypox virus transmission. Trop Geogr Med 39: 115122.
  9. Levine RS, Peterson AT, Yorita KL, Carroll D, Damon IK, Reynolds MG, , 2007. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa. PLoS One 2: e176.[Crossref]
  10. 2003. Update: multistate outbreak of monkeypox – Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52: 642646.
  11. Hutson CL, Lee KN, Abel J, Carroll DS, Montgomery JM, Olson VA, Li Y, Davidson W, Hughes C, Dillon M, Spurlock P, Kazmierczak JJ, Austin C, Miser L, Sorhage FE, Howell J, Davis JP, Reynolds MG, Braden Z, Karem KL, Damon IK, Regnery RL, , 2007. Monkeypox zoonotic associations: insights from laboratory evaluation of animals associated with the multi-state US outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 757768.
  12. Li Y, Olson VA, Laue T, Laker MT, Damon IK, , 2006. Detection of monkeypox virus with real-time PCR assays. J Clin Virol 36: 194203.[Crossref]
  13. Olson VA, Laue T, Laker MT, Babkin IV, Drosten C, Shchelkunov SN, Niedrig M, Damon IK, Meyer H, , 2004. Real-time PCR system for detection of orthopoxviruses and simultaneous identification of smallpox virus. J Clin Microbiol 42: 19401946.[Crossref]
  14. Karem KL, Reynolds M, Braden Z, Lou G, Bernard N, Patton J, Damon IK, , 2005. Characterization of acute-phase humoral immunity to monkeypox: use of immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of monkeypox infection during the 2003 North American outbreak. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12: 867872.
  15. Bhalotra S, Heady C, , 2000. Determinants of Child Farm Labor in Ghana and Pakistan: a Comparative Study. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge.
  16. Karem KL, Reynolds M, Hughes C, Braden Z, Nigam P, Crotty S, Glidewell J, Ahmed R, Amara R, Damon IK, , 2007. Monkeypox-induced immunity and failure of childhood smallpox vaccination to provide complete protection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 13181327.[Crossref]
  17. Carroll DS, Mills JN, Montgomery JM, Bausch DG, Blair PJ, Burans JP, Felices V, Gianella A, Iihoshi N, Nichol ST, Olson JG, Rogers DS, Salazar M, Ksiazek TG, , 2005. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Central Bolivia: relationships between reservoir hosts, habitats, and viral genotypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 4246.
  18. Bennett M, Crouch AJ, Begon M, Duffy B, Feore S, Gaskell RM, Kelly DF, McCracken CM, Vicary L, Baxby D, , 1997. Cowpox in British voles and mice. J Comp Pathol 116: 3544.[Crossref]
  19. Begon M, Hazel SM, Baxby D, Bown K, Cavanagh R, Chantrey J, Jones T, Bennett M, , 1999. Transmission dynamics of a zoonotic pathogen within and between wildlife host species. Proc Biol Sci 266: 19391945.[Crossref]
  20. Karem KL, Reynolds M, Olson V, Li Y, Damon IK, , 2006. Monkeypox outbreak diagnostics and implications for vaccine protective effect. Nat Med 12: 495496.[Crossref]
  21. Jezek Z, Nakano JH, Arita I, Mutombo M, Szczeniowski M, Dunn C, , 1987. Serological survey for human monkeypox infections in a selected population in Zaire. J Trop Med Hyg 90: 3138.
  22. Reynolds MG, Davidson WB, Curns AT, Conover CS, Huhn G, Davis JP, Wegner M, Croft DR, Newman A, Obiesie NN, Hansen GR, Hays PL, Pontones P, Beard B, Teclaw R, Howell JF, Braden Z, Holman RC, Karem KL, Damon IK, , 2007. Spectrum of infection and risk factors for human monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 13321339.[Crossref]
  23. Baxby D, Hessami M, Ghaboosi B, Ramyar H, , 1975. Response of camels to intradermal inoculation with smallpox and camelpox viruses. Infect Immun 11: 617621.
  24. Lourie B, Nakano JH, Kemp GE, Setzer HW, , 1975. Isolation of poxvirus from an African Rodent. J Infect Dis 132: 677681.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0716
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0716
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Dec 2009
  • Accepted : 11 Jan 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error