Volume 83, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is widespread in the southern United States. In addition to detection in numerous wildlife host species, cases have been diagnosed in domestic dogs and humans. In the current investigation, groups of laboratory mice [Crl:CD1 (ICR)] were inoculated with one of 18 United States isolates obtained from a wide host range to elucidate their infectivity, pathogenicity, and virulence. In addition, laboratory rats (SD strain) were inoculated with four isolates. Mice and rats were susceptible to infection with all strains, but no morbidity or mortality was noted, which indicates that these isolates from the United States had low virulence for laboratory mice and rats.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Health Information for International Travel 2008. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. [Google Scholar]
  2. TDR, 2005. Chagas' Disease. Tropical Disease Research: Progress 2003–2004. Seventeenth Programme Report of the United Nations Childrens' Fund/United Nations Devlopment Program/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 3133. [Google Scholar]
  3. AABB, 2009. (Website Reference [101]) AABB: AABB Chagas' Biovigilance Network. Available at: www.aabb.org/Content/Programs_and_Services/Data_Center/Chagas/. Accessed October 25, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  4. Kjos SA, Snowded KF, Craig TM, Lewis B, Ronald N, Olson JK, , 2008. Distribution and characterization of canine Chagas disease in Texas. Vet Parasitol 152: 249256.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Williams JT, Dick EJ, Jr VandeBerg JL, Hubbard GB, , 2009. Natural Chagas disease in four baboons. J Med Primatol 38: 107113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Barr SC, Brown CC, Dennis VA, Klei TR, , 1991. The lesions and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in opossums and armadillos from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol 77: 624627.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Brown EL, Roellig DM, Gomper ME, Monello RJ, Wenning KM, Gabriel MW, Yabsley MJ, , 2009. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among twelve potential reservoir species from six states. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis [Epub ahead of print]. [Google Scholar]
  8. Clark CG, Pung OJ, , 1994. Host specificity of ribosomal DNA variation in sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi from North America. Mol Biochem Parasitol 66: 175179.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Barnabé C, Yaeger R, Pung O, Tibayrenc M, , 2001. Trypanosoma cruzi: a considerable phylogenetic divergence indicates that the agent of Chagas disease is indigenous to the native fauna of the United States. Exp Parasitol 99: 7379.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Roellig DM, Brown EL, Barnabé C, Tibayrenc M, Steurer FJ, Yabsley MJ, , 2008. Molecular typing of Trypanosoma cruzi isolates, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 11231125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Bértoli M, Andó MH, de Ornelas Toledo MJ, de Araújo SM, Gomes ML, , 2006. Infectivity for mice of Trypanosoma cruzi I and II strains isolated from different hosts. Parasitol Res 99: 713.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Lisboa CV, Pinho AP, Monteiro RV, Jansen AM, , 2007. Trypanosoma cruzi (kinetoplastida Trypanosomatidae): biological heterogeneity in the isolates derived from wild hosts. Exp Parasitol 116: 150155.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Wood SF, , 1941. New localities for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas in southwestern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 113. [Google Scholar]
  14. Packchanian A, , 1942. Reservoir hosts of Chagas' disease in the state of Texas: natural infection of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus texanus), house mouse (Mus musculus), opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and wood rats (Neotoma micropus micropus), with Trypanosoma cruzi in the states of Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22 (Suppl 1): 623631. [Google Scholar]
  15. Walton BC, Bauman PM, Diamond LS, Herman CM, , 1958. The isolation and identification of Trypanosoma cruzi from raccoons in Maryland. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7: 603610. [Google Scholar]
  16. Olsen PF, Shoemaker JP, Turner HF, Hays KL, , 1964. Incidence of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas) in wild vectors and reservoirs in east-central Alabama. J Parasitol 50: 599603.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Wood SF, , 1975. Trypanosoma cruzi: new foci of enzootic Chagas' disease in California. Exp Parasitol 38: 153160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. John DT, Hoppe KL, , 1986. Trypanosoma cruzi from wild raccoons in Oklahoma. Am J Vet Res 47: 10561059. [Google Scholar]
  19. Barr SC, Brown CC, Dennis VA, Klei TR, , 1990. Infections of inbred mice with three Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from Louisiana mammals. J Parasitol 76: 918921.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Pietrzak SM, Pung OJ, , 1998. Trypanosomiasis in raccoons from Georgia. J Wildl Dis 34: 132136.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Karsten V, Davis C, Kuhn R, , 1992. Trypanosoma cruzi in wild raccoons and opossums in North Carolina. J Parasitol 78: 547549.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Roellig DM, Ellis AE, Yabsley MJ, , 2009. Genetically different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi elicit different infection dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Int J Parasitol 39: 16031610.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Brisse S, Verhoef J, Tibayrenc M, , 2001. Characterisation of large and small subunit rRNA and min-exon genes further supports the distinction of six Trypanosoma cruzi lineages. Int J Parasitol 31: 12181226.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Souto RP, Fernandes O, Macedo AM, Campbell DA, Zingales B, , 1996. DNA markers define two major phylogenetic lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi . Mol Biochem Parasitol 83: 141152.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Castellani O, Ribeiro LV, Fernandes JF, , 1967. Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi in culture. J Protozool 14: 447451.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Yeo M, Acosta N, Llewellyn M, Sánchez H, Adamson S, Miles GAJ, López E, Gonzáles N, Patterson JS, Gaunt MW, de Arias AR, Miles MA, , 2005. Origins of Chagas disease: Didelphis species are natural hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi I and armadillo hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II, including hybrids. Int J Parasitol 35: 225233.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Barnabé C, Yaegar R, Pung O, Tibayrenc M, , 2001. Trypanosoma cruzi: a considerable phylogenetic divergence indicates that the agent of Chagas disease is indigenous to the native fauna of the United States. Exp Parasitol 99: 7379.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wood SF, , 1952. Mammal blood parasite records from Southwestern United States and Mexico. J Parasitol 38: 8586.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Ritter DM, Rowland EC, , 1984. Corpus Christi strain-induced protection to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in C3H(He) mice: effective dose, time, route, and number of vaccinations. J Parasitol 70: 755759.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Nov 2009
  • Accepted : 02 Apr 2010
  • Published online : 07 Sep 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error