Volume 82, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Difficulty in controlling human infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Water buffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of , and mathematical models using these data concluded that water buffaloes are not a major reservoir for transmission of to humans. We collected stool from 81 buffaloes in Macanip, Leyte, the Philippines, and assayed for infection by the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique, the Kato-Katz technique, miracidia hatching, and a highly validated real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence defined by each assay was 3.7%, 3.7%, 0%, and 51.5% respectively. Our results demonstrate that microscopic-based techniques dramatically underestimate the prevalence of infection in water buffaloes in the Philippines and warrant reexamination of the role of bovines in transmission of to humans in the Philippines.


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  • Received : 21 Oct 2009
  • Accepted : 16 Nov 2009
  • Published online : 05 Apr 2010

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