1921
Volume 83, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A retrospective, matched case-control study was conducted in Jamaica's Western Regional Health Authority (WRHA). Forty-three individuals developing clinical leptospirosis between January 2005 and December 2007 (i.e., cases) were age and neighborhood matched to 89 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases had increased odds of contact with rodents OR 3.52, goats OR 3.38, and being engaged in outdoor labor OR 5.30. Knowledge of leptospirosis and indoor work was protective, OR 0.39 and OR 0.16, respectively. Positive RERI values were noted for joint exposure to rodents and goats (RERI 5.54), outdoor labor and goats (RERI 6.97), and outdoor labor and rodents (RERI 30.59). Our results suggest a synergistic effect of occupational and environmental exposures on clinical human leptospirosis from the WRHA. Knowledge of the disease and its risk factors allows for protection from the disease.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0609
2010-09-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/3/633.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0609&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. CDC, 2005. Leptospirosis. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
  2. WHO, 1999. Leptospirosis worldwide, 1999. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 74: 237242.
  3. White F, Hospedales CJ, , 1994. Communicable disease control as a Caribbean public health priority. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 28: 7376.
  4. WHO, 2003. Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis, Surveillance and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  5. Pappas G, Papadimitriou P, Siozopoulou V, Christou L, Akritidis N, , 2008. The globalization of leptospirosis: worldwide incidence trends. Int J Infect Dis 12: 351357.[Crossref]
  6. Cachay ER, Vinetz JM, , 2005. A global research agenda for leptospirosis. J Postgrad Med 51: 174178.
  7. Levett PN, , 2001. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14: 296326.[Crossref]
  8. Ido Y, Hoki R, Ito H, Wani H, , 1917. The rat as a carrier of Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae, the causative agent of Weil's Disease (Spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica). J Exp Med 26: 341353.[Crossref]
  9. 2005. Leptospirosis. The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
  10. Acha PN, Szyfres B, Bureau Pan American Sanitary, 1987. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization.
  11. Weekes CC, Everard COR, Levett PN, , 1997. Seroepidemiology of canine leptospirosis on the island of Barbados. Vet Microbiol 57: 215222.[Crossref]
  12. Waitkins SA, , 1986. Leptospirosis as an occupational disease. Br J Ind Med 43: 721725.
  13. Bras G, , 1955. Leptospirosis in Jamaica: case report. West Indian Med J 4: 126128.
  14. Segree W, Fitz-Henly M, Rawlins J, Bowen-Wright C, , 1982. Leptospirosis: a review of the Jamaican experience compared with other Caribbean territories. West Indian Med J 31: 5460.
  15. Everard JD, Everard CO, , 1993. Leptospirosis in the Caribbean. Rev. Med. Microbiol 4: 114122.[Crossref]
  16. Levett PN, Branch SL, Whittington CU, Edwards CN, Paxton H, , 2001. Two methods for rapid serological diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8: 349351.
  17. Bajani MD, Ashford DA, Bragg SL, Woods CW, Aye T, Spiegel RA, Plikaytis BD, Perkins BA, Phelan M, Levett PN, Weyant RS, , 2003. Evaluation of four commercially available rapid serologic tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 803809.[Crossref]
  18. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, , 1998. Modern Epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
  19. de Mutsert R, Jager KJ, Zoccali C, Dekker FW, , 2009. The effect of joint exposures: examining the presence of interaction. Kidney Int 75: 677681.[Crossref]
  20. Everard CO, Bennett S, Edwards CN, Nicholson GD, Hassell TA, Carrington DG, Everard JD, , 1992. An investigation of some risk factors for severe leptospirosis on Barbados. J Trop Med Hyg 95: 1322.
  21. Everard CO, Maude GH, Hayes RJ, , 1990. Leptospiral infection: a household serosurvey in urban and rural communities in Barbados and Trinidad. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 84: 255266.[Crossref]
  22. Everard CO, Hayes RJ, Fraser-Chanpong GM, , 1985. A serosurvey for leptospirosis in Trinidad among urban and rural dwellers and persons occupationally at risk. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 96105.[Crossref]
  23. Grant GH, Smith G, Schloss W, , 1988. Seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies in the Jamaican livestock population. Vet Rec 122: 419420.[Crossref]
  24. Adler B, Faine S, , 1978. The antibodies involved in the human immune response to leptospiral infection. J Med Microbiol 11: 387400.[Crossref]
  25. Lupidi R, Cinco M, Balanzin D, Delprete E, Varaldo PE, , 1991. Serological follow-up of patients involved in a localized outbreak of leptospirosis. J Clin Microbiol 29: 805809.
  26. Silva MV, Camargo ED, Batista L, Vaz AJ, Brandao AP, Nakamura PM, Negrao JM, , 1995. Behaviour of specific IgM, IgG and IgA class antibodies in human leptospirosis during the acute phase of the disease and during convalescence. J Trop Med Hyg 98: 268272.
  27. Winslow WE, Merry DJ, Pirc ML, Devine PL, , 1997. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in diagnosis of human leptospiral infection. J Clin Microbiol 35: 19381942.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0609
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0609
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 11 Oct 2009
  • Accepted : 21 Apr 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error