Volume 82, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We previously reported that the T cell compartment in chronically infected adult subjects display functional and phenotypic signs of immune senescence. This study aimed to investigate the differentiation and the senescent profile of the overall CD8 T cell compartment in -infected children at the early stage of the disease. We found a lower percentage of naive (CD27CD28CD45RA) and early antigen-experienced (CD45RACD27CD28), and higher percentages of late differentiated antigen-experienced (CD45RACD27CD28) CD8 T cells in -infected children as compared with age-matched uninfected controls. The expression of the interleukin (IL)-7R is also decreased on naive and on antigen-experienced total CD8 T cells with various degrees of differentiation. Conversely, the expression of HLA-DR, caspase-3, and CD57 did not vary on the total CD8 T cell compartment. These findings suggest that the duration of the infection is relevant in the process of immune senescent that this parasite can induce.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Dias E, Laranja FS, Miranda A, Nobrega G, , 1956. Chagas' disease: a clinical, epidemiologic, and pathologic study. Circulation 14: 10351060.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2002. Control of Chagas disease: report of a WHO expert committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 905: 1109. [Google Scholar]
  3. Tarleton RL, , 2007. Immune system recognition of Trypanosoma cruzi . Curr Opin Immunol 19: 430434.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Parish IA, Kaech SM, , 2009. Diversity in CD8+ T cell differentiation. Curr Opin Immunol 21: 291297.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Callan MF, Fazou C, Yang H, Rostron T, Poon K, Hatton C, McMichael AJ, , 2000. CD8+ T cell selection, function, and death in the primary immune response in vivo . J Clin Invest 106: 12511261.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Harari A, Rizzardi GP, Ellefsen K, Ciuffreda D, Champagne P, Bart PA, Kaufmann D, Telenti A, Sahli R, Tambussi G, Kaiser L, Lazzarin A, Perrin L, Pantaleo G, , 2002. Analysis of HIV-1 and CMV-specific memory CD4 T cell responses during primary and chronic infection. Blood 100: 13811387.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Amyes E, Hatton C, Montamat-Sicotte D, Gudgeon N, Rickinson AB, McMichael AJ, Callan MF, , 2003. Characterization of the CD4+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus during primary and persistent infection. J Exp Med 198: 903911.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Papagno L, Spina CA, Marchant A, Salio M, Rufer N, Little S, Dong T, Chesney G, Waters A, Easterbrook P, Dunbar PR, Shepherd D, Cerundolo V, Emery V, Griffiths P, Conlon C, McMichael AJ, Richman DD, Rowland-Jones SL, Appay V, , 2004. Immune activation and CD8+ T-cell differentiation towards senescence in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Biol 2: E20.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Nikolich-Zugich J, , 2008. Ageing and life-long maintenance of T-cell subsets in the face of latent persistent infections. Nat Rev Immunol 8: 512522.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Laucella SA, Postan M, Martin D, Hubby-Fralish B, Albareda MC, Alvarez MG, Lococo B, Barbieri G, Viotti R, Tarleton RL, , 2004. The frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells specific for Trypanosoma cruzi inversely correlates with disease severity in chronic human Chagas disease. J Infect Dis 189: 909918.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Albareda MC, Laucella SA, Alvarez MG, Armenti AH, Bertochi G, Tarleton RL, Postan M, , 2006. Trypanosoma cruzi modulates the profile of memory CD8+ T cells in chronic Chagas disease patients. Int Immunol 18: 465471.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Alvarez MG, Postan M, Weatherly B, Albareda MC, Sidney J, Sette A, Olivera C, Armenti AH, Tarleton RL, Laucella S, , 2008. HLA Class I-T cell epitopes from trans-sialidase proteins reveal functionally distinct subsets of CD8+ T cells specific for Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e288.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Albareda MC, Olivera GC, Laucella SA, Alvarez MG, Fernandez ER, Lococo B, Viotti R, Tarleton RL, Postan M, , 2009. Chronic human infection with Trypanosoma cruzi drives CD4+ T cells to immune senescence. J Immunol 183: 41034108.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Seki Y, Yang J, Okamoto M, Tanaka S, Goitsuka R, Farrar MA, Kubo M, , 2007. IL-7/STAT5 cytokine signaling pathway is essential but insufficient for maintenance of naive CD4 T cell survival in peripheral lymphoid organs. J Immunol 178: 262270.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Rabin RL, Roederer M, Maldonado Y, Petru A, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA, , 1995. Altered representation of naive and memory CD8 T cell subsets in HIV-infected children. J Clin Invest 95: 20542060.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Sathler-Avelar R, Vitelli-Avelar DM, Massara RL, Borges JD, Lana M, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Dias JC, Elói-Santos SM, Martins-Filho OA, , 2006. Benznidazole treatment during early-indeterminate Chagas' disease shifted the cytokine expression by innate and adaptive immunity cells toward a type 1-modulated immune profile. Scand J Immunol 64: 554563.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Bahia-Oliveira LM, Gomes JA, Cancado JR, Ferrari TC, Lemos EM, Luz ZM, Moreira MC, Gazzinelli G, Correa-Oliveira R, , 2000. Immunological and clinical evaluation of chagasic patients subjected to chemotherapy during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection 14–30 years ago. J Infect Dis 182: 634638.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Bahia-Oliveira LM, Gomes JA, Rocha MO, Moreira MC, Lemos EM, Luz ZM, Pereira ME, Coffman RL, Dias JC, Cançado JR, Gazzinelli G, Corrêa-Oliveira R, , 1998. IFN-gamma in human Chagas' disease: protection or pathology? Braz J Med Biol Res 31: 127131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Laucella SA, Perez Mazliah D, Bertocchi G, Alvarez AM, Cooley G, Viotti R, Albareda MC, Lococo B, Postan M, Tarleton RL, , 2009. Changes in Trypanosoma cruzi-specific immune responses following treatment: surrogate markers of treatment efficacy. CID 49: 16751684.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Sosa Estani S, Segura EL, Ruiz AM, Velazquez E, Porcel BM, Yampotis C, , 1998. Efficacy of treatment with benznidazole in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 526529. [Google Scholar]
  21. de Andrade AL, Zicker F, de Oliveira RM, Almeida Silva S, Luquetti A, Travassos LR, Almeida IC, de Andrade SS, de Andrade JG, Martelli CM, , 1996. Randomized trial of efficacy of benznidazole in treatment of early Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Lancet 9039: 14071413.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Viotti R, Vigliano C, Lococo B, Bertocchi G, Petti M, Alvarez MG, Postan M, Armenti A, , 2006. Long-term cardiac outcomes of treating chronic Chagas disease with benznidazole versus no treatment: a nonrandomized trial. Ann Intern Med 144: 724734.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Rassi A, Jr Dias JC, Marin-Neto JA, Rassi A, , 2009. Challenges and opportunities for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease. Heart 95: 524534.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Laucella S, Segura E, Riarte A, Sosa Estani S, , 1999. Soluble platelet (sP-selectin) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) decrease during therapy with benznidazole in children with indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. Clin Exp Immunol 118: 423427.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Sathler-Avelar R, Vitelli-Avelar DM, Massara RL, de Lana M, Pinto Dias JC, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Elói-Santos SM, Martins-Filho OA, , 2008. Etiological treatment during early chronic indeterminate Chagas disease incites an activated status on innate and adaptive immunity associated with a type 1-modulated cytokine pattern. Microbes Infect 10: 103113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Oct 2009
  • Accepted : 01 Feb 2010
  • Published online : 05 May 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error