Volume 83, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In December 2004, Togo was the first country to conduct a nationwide free insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution as part of its National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted one and nine months post-campaign as part of a multidisciplinary evaluation of the nationwide distribution of ITNs to children 9–59 months of age to evaluate ITN ownership, equity, and use. Our results demonstrated that at one month post-campaign, 93.1% of all eligible children received an ITN. Household ITN ownership and equity increased significantly post-campaign. Nine months post-campaign, 78.6% of households with a child eligible to participate in the campaign retained at least one campaign net. Use by eligible children was 43.5% at one month post-campaign (during the dry season) and 52.9% at nine months post-campaign (during the rainy season). Household ownership of at least one ITN increased from 8.0% pre-campaign to 62.5% one month post-campaign. Together, these findings demonstrate that in this setting, increased household ITN ownership, equity, and retention can be achieved on a national scale through free ITN distribution during an integrated campaign.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2000. The African Summit on Roll Back Malaria, Abuja, 25 April 2000. Available at: http://www.rbm.who.int/docs/abuja_declaration.pdf. Accessed August 3, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  2. Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2008. The Global Malaria Action Plan. Available at: http://www.rbm.who.int/gmap/gmap.pdf. Accessed March 12, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  3. Lengeler C, , 2000. Insecticide-treated bednets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000363. [Google Scholar]
  4. Noor AM, Amin AA, Akhwale WS, Snow RW, , 2007. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children. PLoS Med 4: e255.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. World Health Organization, 2004. The World Health Report, Statistical Annex. Available at: http://www.who.int/whr/2004/annex/en/index.html. Accessed August 3, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  6. Eliades MJ, Wolkon A, Morgah K, Crawford SB, Dorkenoo A, Sodahlon Y, Hawley WA, Hightower AW, Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, , 2006. Burden of malaria at community level in children less than 5 years of age in Togo. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 622629. [Google Scholar]
  7. Grabowsky M, Nobiya T, Ahun M, Donna R, Lengor M, Zimmerman D, Ladd H, Hoekstra E, Bello A, Baffoe-Wilmot A, Amofah G, , 2005. Distributing insecticide-treated bednets during measles vaccination: a low-cost means of achieving high and equitable coverage. Bull World Health Organ 83: 195201. [Google Scholar]
  8. Grabowsky M, Farrell N, Hawley W, Chimumbwa J, Hoyer S, Wolkon A, Selanikio J, , 2005. Integrating insecticide-treated bednets into a measles vaccination campaign achieves high, rapid and equitable coverage with direct and voucher-based methods. Trop Med Int Health 10: 11511160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Distribution of insecticide-treated bednets during an integrated nationwide immunization campaign–Togo, West Africa, December 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54: 994996. [Google Scholar]
  10. Vanden Eng JL, Wolkon A, Frolov AS, Terlouw DJ, Eliades MJ, Morgah K, Takpa V, Dare A, Sodahlon YK, Doumanou Y, Hawley WA, Hightower AW, , 2007. Use of handheld computers with global positioning systems for probability sampling and data entry in household surveys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 393399. [Google Scholar]
  11. World Bank, 2000. African Development Indicators 2000. Available at: http://go.worldbank.org/QKQMQQBO70. Accessed August 3, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  12. Thwing J, Hochberg N, Vanden Eng J, Issifi S, Eliades MJ, Minkoulou E, Wolkon A, Gado H, Ibrahim O, Newman RD, Lama M, , 2008. Insecticide-treated net ownership and usage in Niger after a nationwide integrated campaign. Trop Med Int Health 13: 827834.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Korenromp EL, Miller J, Cibulskis RE, Kabir Cham M, Alnwick D, Dye C, , 2003. Monitoring mosquito net coverage for malaria control in Africa: possession vs. use by children under 5 years. Trop Med Int Health 8: 693703.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, ter Kuile FO, Alaii JA, Gimnig JE, Arudo J, Vulule JM, Odhacha A, Kachur SP, Schoute E, Rosen DH, Sexton JD, Oloo AJ, Hawley WA, , 2003. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 2329. [Google Scholar]
  15. Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, Alaii JA, Gimnig JE, Kolczak MS, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki SK, Shi YP, Kachur SP, Hightower AW, Vulule JM, Hawley WA, , 2003. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya II. Study design and methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 1015. [Google Scholar]
  16. Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP), Togolese Ministry of Health, 2003. Rapport: Collecte Dynamique des Donnees de Moridite et de Mortalite sure le Paludisme pour le Suivi et l'Evaluation de RRP au Togo. [Google Scholar]
  17. Mueller DH, Wiseman V, Bakusa D, Morgah K, Dare A, Tchamdja P, , 2008. Cost-effectiveness analysis of insecticide-treated net distribution as part of the Togo Integrated Child Health Campaign. Malar J 7: 73.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Oct 2010
  • Accepted : 26 Jul 2010
  • Published online : 05 Nov 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error