Volume 83, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the role of male mosquitoes in the maintenance and transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to female mosquitoes. We demonstrated that infected male mosquitoes are capable of infecting females during mating. The infection rate in female mosquitoes was 11% when virgin female mosquitoes were allowed to coinhabit with infected males. The body suspension of venereally infected female mosquitoes induced illness in infant Swiss albino mice, which demonstrated the infectivity of the venereally transmitted virus. The presence of CHIKV in the brains of the ill mice was confirmed by a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction specific for partial sequences of nonstructural protein 4 and envelope 1 genes. In the light of the recent report of transovarial transmission of CHIKV in mosquitoes, although at a lower level, this finding has significance because it may help in transmission of the virus to females venereally to start a new infection cycle.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ross RW, , 1956. The Newala epidemic III. The virus: isolation, pathogenic properties and relationship to the epidemic. J Hyg (Lond) 54: 177191.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Rao TR, , 1966. Recent epidemics caused by chikungunya virus in India, 1963–1965. Sci Cult 32: 215220. [Google Scholar]
  3. Diallo M, Thonnon J, Traore Lamizana M, Fontenille D, , 1999. Vectors of chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 281286. [Google Scholar]
  4. Yergolkar PN, Tandale BV, Arankalle VA, Sathe PS, Sudeep AB, Gandhe SS, Gokhale MD, Jacob GP, Hundekar SL, Mishra AC, , 2006. Chikungunya outbreaks caused by African genotype, India. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 15801583.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Sang RC, Ahmed O, Faye O, Kelly CL, Yahaya AA, Mmadi I, Toilibou A, Sergon K, Brown J, Agata N, Yakouide A, Ball MD, Breiman RF, Miller BR, Powers AM, , 2008. Entomologic investigations of a chikungunya virus epidemic in the Union of the Comoros, 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 7782. [Google Scholar]
  6. de Lamballerie Xde Leroy E, Charrel RN, Ttsetsarkin K, Higgs S, Gould EA, , 2008. Chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come? Virol J 5: 33.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Bonilauri P, Bellini R, Calzolari M, Angelini R, Venturi L, Fallacara F, Cordioli P, Angelini P, Venturelli C, Merialdi G, Dottori M, , 2008. Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 852853.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Pavri KM, , 1986. Disappearance of chikungunya virus from India and Southeast Asia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80: 491.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Pengsakul T, Bhakdeenuan P, Chanama S, Anantapreecha S, Molito C, Chompoorsri J, Thammapalo S, Sawaboabyakert Om Siriyasatien P, , 2009. Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 951962. [Google Scholar]
  10. Ratsitorahina M, Harisoa J, Ratovonjato J, Biacabe S, Reynes J-M, Zeller H, Raoelina Y, Talarmin A, Richard V, Soares JL, , 2008. Outbreak of dengue and chikungunya fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 11351137.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Rosen L, Gubler D, , 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect and propagate dengue viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23: 11531160. [Google Scholar]
  12. Dhanda V, Ilkal MA, , 1985. Mosquito inoculation and immunofluorescence technique for studies on dengue viruses. Indian J Virol 1: 69. [Google Scholar]
  13. McIntosh BM, Jupp PG, Dos SI, , 1977. Rural epidemic of chikungunya in South Africa with involvement of Aedes (Diceromyia) furcifer (Edwards) and baboons. S Afr J Sci 73: 267269. [Google Scholar]
  14. Thompson WH, Beaty BJ, , 1977. Venereal transmission of La Crosse (California encephalitis) arbovirus in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Science 196: 530531.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Ovenden JR, Mahon RJ, , 1984. Venereal transmission of Sindbis virus between individuals of Aedes australis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 21: 292295.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Shroyer DA, , 1990. Venereal transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus by Culex quinquefasciatus males (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 27: 334337.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Geevarghese G, Mavale MS, Ghodke YS, Kode SS, Ciceilia D, , 2003. Venereal transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus in Culex quinquifasciatus and West Nile virus in Cx. bitaeniorhynchus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 446447. [Google Scholar]
  18. Mavale MS, Geevarghese G, Ghodke YS, Fulmali PV, Singh A, Mishra AC, , 2005. Vertical and venereal transmission of Chandipura virus by Aedes aegypti mosquito. J Med Entomol 42: 909911.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Mavale MS, Fulmali PV, Geevarghese G, Arankalle VA, Ghodke YS, Kanogia PC, Mishra AC, , 2006. Venereal transmission of Chandipura virus by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli). Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 11511152. [Google Scholar]
  20. Dubrulle M, Mousson L, Moutailler S, Vazeille M, Failloux AB, , 2009. Chikungunya virus and Aedes mosquitoes: saliva is infectious as soon as two days after oral infection. PLoS ONE 4: e5895.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Sep 2009
  • Accepted : 08 Jul 2010
  • Published online : 06 Dec 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error