Volume 82, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



On the military training facility of Tekong Island, Singapore, a comprehensive vector-borne disease control program was started in end-2006 to reduce mosquito populations and negate the need for anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis. The program was based on 1) preventing importation of malaria through screening of visitors, 2) preventing human-to-mosquito transmission through early case detection and mosquito control, 3) preventing mosquito-to-human transmission through personal protection, and 4) contingency plans. Systematic environmental works were performed to reduce breeding sites, and insecticide use targeted both adult mosquitoes and larvae. Mosquito populations declined from 103 mosquitoes per sampling site in January 2007 to 6 per site by March 2007 ( < 0.001). The proportion of positive ovitraps declined from 93% in January 2007–2% in March 2007 ( < 0.001). There were no malaria cases on the island despite chemoprophylaxis termination, showing that comprehensive combination vector-control strategies were effective in reducing the risk of malaria.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, , 2003. Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa. Med Vet Entomol 17: 417422.[Crossref]
  2. Hargreaves K, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, , 2000. Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa. Med Vet Entomol 7: 181189.[Crossref]
  3. Filliner U, Kannady K, William G, , 2008. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malar J 7: 20.[Crossref]
  4. Kawaguchi I, Sasaki A, Mogi M, , 2004. Combining zooprophylaxis and insecticide spraying: a malaria-control strategy limiting the development of insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes. Proc Biol Sci 271: 301309.[Crossref]
  5. Goh KT, , 1983. Eradication of malaria from Singapore. Singapore Med J 25: 255268.
  6. Tee AK, Oh HM, Wee IY, , 2004. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome masquerading as a viral exanthem: three cases and a mini-review. Ann Acad Med Singapore 33: 375378.
  7. Teo RY, Tay YK, Tan CH, , 2006. Presumed dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity syndrome causing reversible hypersensitivity myocarditis and thyrotoxicosis. Ann Acad Med Singapore 53: 385391.
  8. Hussien OA, , 2007. Antimalarial drug toxicity: a review. Chemotherapy 53: 385391.[Crossref]
  9. Lee YC, Tang CS, Ang LW, Han HK, James L, Goh KT, , 2009. Epidemiological characteristics of imported and locally-acquired malaria in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 38: 840849.
  10. Lancey LA, , 2007. Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus for mosquito control. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23: 133163.[Crossref]
  11. Fillinger U, Knols BGJ, Becker N, , 2003. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 8: 3747.[Crossref]
  12. Majambere Lindsay S, Green C, Kandeh B, Fillinger U, , 2007. Microbial larvicides for malaria control in The Gambia. Malar J 6: 76.[Crossref]
  13. Pepperell C, Rau N, Krajden S, , 2003. West Nile virus infection in 2002: morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in south central Ontario. CMAJ 168: 13991405.
  14. Kroeger A, Horstick O, Riedl C, , 1995. The potential for malaria control with the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in Peru and Ecuador. Acta Trop 60: 4757.[Crossref]
  15. Brown M, Carter J, Watson TM, , 2001. Evaluation of liquid Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products for control of Australian Aedes arbovirus vectors. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17: 812.
  16. Russell TL, Brown MD, Purdie DM, , 2003. Efficacy of VectoBac (Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis) formulations for mosquito control in Australia. J Econ Entomol 96: 17861791.[Crossref]
  17. Nyarango PM, Gebremaeskel T, Mebrahtu G, , 2006. A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods. Malar J 5: 33.[Crossref]
  18. Gunasekaran K, Doss PS, Vaidyanathan K, , 2004. Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors. Acta Trop 92: 109118.[Crossref]
  19. Zhakhongirov ShM, Yarbaboyev MKh, Khamraeyeva ASh, Bekker N, Lebedeva NI, Ponomarev IM, Muminov MS, Tsoĭ EG, , 2004. Testing the efficiency of Bacillus thuringien israelesis against mosquito larvae in Uzbekistan. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2831.
  20. Sharma SN, Shukla RP, Mittal PK, , 2003. Efficacy of a new formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in laboratory and field conditions of Kumaun foothills of Uttaranchal, India. J Commun Dis 35: 290299.
  21. Teng HJ, Lu LC, Wu YL, , 2005. Evaluation of various control agents against mosquito larvae in rice paddies in Taiwan. J Vector Ecol 30: 126132.
  22. Lee YW, Zairi J, , 2006. Field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 against Aedes mosquitoes. Trop Biomed 23: 3744.
  23. Setha T, Chantha N, Socheat D, , 2007. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, VectoBac WG and DT, formulations against dengue mosquito vectors in cement potable water jars in Cambodia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38: 261268.
  24. Becker N, , 1997. Microbial control of mosquitoes: management of the upper rhine mosquito population as a model programme. Parasitol Today 13: 485487.[Crossref]
  25. Region of Peel, 2004. West Nile Virus in the Region of Peel 2004 Report. Available at: http://www.peelregion.ca/health/westnile/resources/reports.htm#report2004. Accessed April 9, 2009.
  26. Graves PM, Osgood DE, Thomson MC, , 2003. Effectiveness of malaria control during changing climate conditions in Eritrea, 1998. Trop Med Int Health 13: 218228.[Crossref]
  27. Manga L, Toure A, Shililu J, , 2004. Implementation of Integrated Vector Management in the WHO-African Region: Progress Report 2000–2003. Washington, DC: Environmental Health Project, U.S. Agency for International Development, 126.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 16 Sep 2009
  • Accepted : 11 Feb 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error