Volume 82, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We examined the cross-sectional relationships between malaria parasitemia and CD4 T cell count and viral load among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. We then followed women to investigate whether or not baseline parasitemia predicted CD4 T cell counts or viral loads > 90 days post-baseline or predicted time to HIV disease stage 3 or 4 or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related death (ARD). Parasitemia level was nonlinearly associated with viral load at baseline and among measurements taken > 90 days post-baseline; women with low baseline parasitemia, versus none, had higher viral loads at both time points. Any baseline parasitemia predicted an increased rate of ARD among women with baseline CD4 T cell counts ≥ 500 cells/µL (ratio rate [RR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–6.0; test for heterogeneity = 0.05). Further study is warranted to determine whether or not parasitemia is especially detrimental to individuals with lower levels of immunosuppression or chronic low parasitemia.


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  • Received : 19 Aug 2009
  • Accepted : 07 Jan 2010

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