1921
Volume 83, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Almost a billion persons lack access to improved drinking water, and diarrheal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets are widely recommended for household water treatment to reduce diarrhea. Because NaDCC is directly added to untreated water sources, concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of disinfection by-products. This study investigated trihalomethane (THM) production in water from six sources used for drinking (0.6–888.5 nephelometric turbidity units) near Arusha, Tanzania. No sample collected at 1, 8, and 24 hours after NaDCC addition exceeded the World Health Organization guideline values for either individual or total THMs. Ceramic filtration, sand filtration, cloth filtration, and settling and decanting were not effective mitigation strategies to reduce THM formation. Chlorine residual and THM formation were not significantly different in NaDCC and sodium hypochlorite treatment. Household chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters did not create THM concentrations that exceeded health risk guidelines.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0431
2010-07-06
2019-08-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/1/135.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0431&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. United Nations Children's Fund, 2007. The State of the World's Children: 2008. New York: United Nations Children's Fund. [Google Scholar]
  2. Boschi-Pinto C, Velebit L, Shibuya K, , 2008. Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 86: 710717.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Baqui AH, Black RE, Sack RB, Chowdhury HR, Yunus M, Siddique AK, , 1993. Malnutrition, cell-mediated immune deficiency, and diarrhea: a community-based longitudinal study in rural Bangladeshi children. Am J Epidemiol 137: 355365.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Guerrant DI, Moore SR, Lima AA, Patrick PD, Schorling JB, Guerrant RL, , 1999. Association of early childhood diarrhea and cryptosporidiosis with impaired physical fitness and cognitive function four-seven years later in a poor urban community in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 707713. [Google Scholar]
  5. Fewtrell L, Colford JM, Jr, 2005. Water, sanitation and hygiene in developing countries: interventions and diarrhoea–a review. Water Sci Technol 52: 133142. [Google Scholar]
  6. Clasen T, Schmidt WP, Rabie T, Roberts I, Cairncross S, , 2007. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 334: 782.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Cutler D, Miller G, , 2005. The role of public health improvements in health advances: the twentieth-century United States. Demography 42: 122.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Clasen T, Saeed TF, Boisson S, Edmondson P, Shipin O, , 2007. Household water treatment using sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets: a randomized, controlled trial to assess microbiological effectiveness in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 187192. [Google Scholar]
  9. Solsona F, Méndez J, , 2003. Water Disinfection. PAHO/CEPIS/PUB/03.89. Washington, DC: Pan American Center for Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Pan American Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004. Product Label for Occidental Chemical Corporation Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Google Scholar]
  11. World Health Organization, 2007. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate in Drinking-Water: Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  12. World Health Organization, 2004. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: sixty-first report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 947: 1225. [Google Scholar]
  13. World Health Organization, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Second Addendum to Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  14. Rook JJ, , 1974. Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters. Water Treat Exam 23: 234243. [Google Scholar]
  15. Richardson SD, Simmons JE, Rice G, , 2002. Disinfection byproducts: the next generation. Environ Sci Technol 36: 198A205A.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1999. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 73: Some Chemicals that Cause Tumours of the Kidney or Urinary Bladder in Rodents and Some other Substances. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  17. World Health Organization, 2005. Trihalomethanes in Drinking-Water: Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  18. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1991. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 52: Chlorinated Drinking-Water; Chlorination By-Products; Some other Halogenated Compounds; Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  19. World Health Organization, 2004. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Third Edition. Volume 1: Recommendations . Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  20. World Health organization, 1993. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Second Edition. Volume 1: Recommendations . Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  21. Lantagne D, Blount BC, Cardinali F, Quick RE, , 2008. Disinfection by-product formation and mitigation strategies in point-of-use chlorination of turbid and non-turbid waters in western Kenya. J Water Health 6: 6782.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Baylac P, Sere O, Wanegue C, Luigi R, , 1996. Comparaison du Pouvoir Desinfectant de la Chloramie T et du Dichloroisocyanurate de Sodium sur une Eau de Riviere. Saint-Cloud Cedex, France: Laboratoire Central, Departement de Microbiologie Alimentaire, Ministere de la Defense. [Google Scholar]
  23. Macêdo J, Andrade N, Chaves J, Araújo J, Silva M, Jardão C, , 2002. Formação de Trihalometanos em Soluções Sanificantes Utilizadas no Processo de Desinfecção de Indústrias de Alimentação. Paraná, Brazil: Sanepar. [Google Scholar]
  24. Lantagne D, , 2008. Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment. J Am Water Works Assoc 100: 106119. [Google Scholar]
  25. Quick RE, Venczel LV, Mintz ED, Soleto L, Aparicio J, Gironaz M, Hutwagner L, Greene K, Bopp C, Maloney K, Chavez D, Sobsey M, Tauxe RV, , 1999. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy. Epidemiol Infect 122: 8390.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Quick RE, Kimura A, Thevos A, Tembo M, Shamputa I, Hutwagner L, Mintz E, , 2002. Diarrhea prevention through household-level water disinfection and safe storage in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 584589. [Google Scholar]
  27. Crump JA, Okoth GO, Slutsker L, Ogaja DO, Keswick BH, Luby SP, , 2004. Effect of point-of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation-disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya. J Appl Microbiol 97: 225231.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Crump JA, Otieno PO, Slutsker L, Keswick BH, Rosen DH, Hoekstra RM, Vulule JM, Luby SP, , 2005. Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 331: 478.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Cardinali FL, Ashley DL, Morrow JC, Moll DM, Blount BC, , 2004. Measurement of trihalomethanes and methyl tertiary-butyl ether in tap water using solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. J Chromatogr Sci 42: 200206.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006. Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct Rule (Stage 2 DBP rule): Basic Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Google Scholar]
  31. Chow AT, Guo F, Gao S, Breuer R, Dahlgren RA, , 2005. Filter pore size selection for characterizing dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane precursors from soils. Water Res 39: 12551264.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Kotlarz N, Lantagne D, Preston K, Jellison K, , 2009. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using locally available physical water clarification mechanisms before household chlorination in developing countries. J Water Health 7: 497506.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Preston K, Lantagne D, Kotlarz N, Jellison K, . Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries. J Water Health 8: 6070.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0431
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0431
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 Jul 2009
  • Accepted : 11 Feb 2010
  • Published online : 06 Jul 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error