Volume 82, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Most malaria endemic regions are co-infested with HIV infection. Treatment of one may affect outcome of the other in co-infected individuals. HIV protease inhibitors, indinavir or nelfinavir, are important antiretroviral drugs and artemisinin is central to malaria treatment. We show these protease inhibitors augment the antimalarial activity of artemisinin against .


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. WHO, 1998. The Use of Artemisinin and its Derivatives as Antimalarial Drugs. (Report of a joint CTD/DMP/TDR informal consultation.) WHO/MAL/98.1086. [Google Scholar]
  2. White NJ, , 2008. Qinghaosu (artemisinin): the price of success. Science 320: 330334.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. WHO, 2007. Resistance to artemisinin derivatives along the Thai-Cambodian border. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 82: 360. [Google Scholar]
  4. French N, Nakiyingi J, Lugada E, Watera C, Whitworth JA, Gilks CF, , 2001. Increasing rates of malarial fever with deteriorating immune status in HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS 15: 899906.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Skinner-Adams TS, Andrews KT, Melville L, McCarthy J, Gardiner DL, , 2007. Synergistic interactions of the antiretroviral protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir with chloroquine and mefloquine against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51: 759762.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Health Organization, 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update 2005. Available at: www.unaids.org/epi/2005/doc/report_pdf.asp. [Google Scholar]
  7. Whitworth J, Morgan D, Quigley M, Smith A, Mayanja B, Eotu H, Omoding N, Okongo M, Malamba S, Ojwiya A, , 2004. Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in rural Uganda: a cohort study. Lancet 356: 10511056.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Abu-Raddad LJ, Patnaik P, Kublin JG, , 2006. Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Science 314: 16031606.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Kim HH, Daar ES, , 2009. Newer antiretroviral agents and how to use them. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 6: 5562.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Trager W, Jensen JB, , 1976. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science 193: 673675.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Nguyen-Dinh P, Payne D, , 1980. Pyrimethamine sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum: determination in vitro by a modified 48-hour test. Bull World Health Organ 58: 909912. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lambros C, Vanderberg JP, , 1979. Synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages in culture. J Parasitol 65: 418420.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Parikh S, Gut J, Istvan E, Goldberg DE, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, , 2005. Antimalarial activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49: 29832985.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Fivelman QL, Adagu IS, Warhurt DC, , 2004. Modified fixed ratio isobologram method for studying in vitro interactions between atovaquone and proguanil or dihydroartemisinin against drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 40974102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Bhattacharya A, Mishra LC, Bhasin VK, , 2008. In vitro activity of artemisinin in combination with clotrimazole or heat-treated amphotericin B against Plasmodium falciparum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 721728. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gupta S, Thapar MM, Wernsdorfer WH, Bjorkman A, , 2002. In vitro interactions of artemisinin with atovaquone, quinine, and mefloquine against Plasmodium falciparum . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46: 15101515.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Odds FC, , 2003. Synergy, antagonism, and what the chequerboard puts between them. J Antimicrob Chemother 52: 1.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Chawira AN, Warhurst DC, , 1987. The effect of artemisinin combined with standard antimalarials against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro . J Trop Med Hyg 90: 18. [Google Scholar]
  19. Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 1998. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 128: 10791100.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Bryson YJ, Mirochnick M, Stek A, Mofenson LM, Connor J, Capparelli E, Watts DH, Huang S, Hughes MD, Kaiser K, Purdue L, Asfaw Y, Keller M, Smith E, , The PACTG 353 Team, 2008. Pharmacokinetics and safety of nelfinavir when used in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine in HIV-infected pregnant women: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 353. HIV Clin Trials 9: 115125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Andrews KT, Fairlie DP, Madala PK, Ray J, Wyatt DM, Hilton PM, Melville LA, Beattie L, Gardiner DL, Reid RC, Stoermer MJ, Skinner-Adams T, Berry C, McCarthy JS, , 2006. Potencies of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against murine malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 639648.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Meshnick SR, , 1994. The mode of action of antimalarial endoperoxides. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88: 3132.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ludwig UE, Webb RJ, van Goethem IDA, East JM, Lee AG, Kimura M, O'Neill PM, Bray PG, Ward SA, Krishna S, , 2003. Artemisinins target the SERCA of Plasmodium falciparum . Nature 424: 957961.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Aug 2009
  • Accepted : 08 Sep 2009
  • Published online : 05 Jan 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error