Volume 83, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by larvae to penetrate the human skin and the vasculature would aid the development of effective vaccines against this important pathogen. In this work, the impact of exsheathing fluid (EF) and excretory/secretory products (ES) on the endothelial barrier was examined using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cellular responses were assessed by investigating molecular changes at cell–cell junctions and by determining levels of secreted IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium. It would appear that a repertoire of larval proteases caused a dose-related increase in endothelial permeability as characterized by a decrease in monolayer resistance with increased permeation of tracer-albumin. These barrier changes were associated with disruption of junctional vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and F-actin and an increase in endothelial secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. Our data suggest that larval proteases play an important role in negotiating the endothelium.


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  • Received : 20 Jul 2009
  • Accepted : 16 Apr 2010
  • Published online : 07 Sep 2010

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