1921
Volume 82, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

There is no gold standard for diagnosing leishmaniases. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of tests used in detecting infection using samples from experimental infections, a reliable equivalent to the classic definition of gold standard. Without statistical differences, the highest sensitivity was achieved by protein A (ProtA), immunoglobulin (Ig)G2, indirect fluorescenece antibody test (IFAT), lymphocyte proliferation assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow (qPCR-BM), qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and the highest specificity by IgG1, IgM, IgA, qPCR-Blood, IgG, IgG2, and qPCR-BM. Maximum positive predictive value was obtained simultaneously by IgG2, qPCR-Blood, and IgG; and maximum negative predictive value by qPCR-BM. Best positive and negative likelihood ratios were obtained by IgG2. The test having the greatest, statistically significant, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was IgG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, according to the gold standard used, IFAT and qPCR are far from fulfilling the requirements to be considered gold standards, and the test showing the highest potential to detect infection is -specific ELISA IgG2.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0366
2010-02-01
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/82/2/251.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0366&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2002. Annex 3: Burden of Disease in DALYs by Cause, Sex and Mortality Stratum in WHO Regions, Estimates for 2001. The World Health Report. Geneva: WHO, 192197.
  2. Mauricio IL, Stothard JR, Miles MA, , 2000. The strange case of Leishmania chagasi . Parasitol Today 16: 188189.[Crossref]
  3. Moreno J, Alvar J, , 2002. Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model. Trends Parasitol 18: 399405.[Crossref]
  4. Dantas-Torres F, , 2007. The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis . Vet Parasitol 149: 139146.[Crossref]
  5. Gavgani AS, Mohite H, Edrissian GH, Mohebali M, Davies CR, , 2002. Domestic dog ownership in Iran is a risk factor for human infection with Leishmania infantum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 511515.
  6. Dye C, Killick-Kendrick R, Vitutia MM, Walton R, Killick-Kendrick M, Harith AE, Guy MW, Canavate MC, Hasibeder G, , 1992. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: prevalence, incidence and basic reproduction number calculated from a cross-sectional serological survey on the island of Gozo, Malta. Parasitology 105: 3541.[Crossref]
  7. Schnur LF, Jacobson RL, Peters W, Killick-Kendrick M, , 1987. Appendix III. Parasitological techniques. ,eds. The Leishmaniases in Biology and Medicine. New York: Academic Press, 499542.
  8. Solano-Gallego L, Morell P, Arboix M, Alberola J, Ferrer L, , 2001. Prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs living in an area of canine leishmaniasis endemicity using PCR on several tissues and serology. J Clin Microbiol 39: 560563.[Crossref]
  9. Cabral M, O’Grady J, Alexander J, , 1992. Demonstration of Leishmania specific cell mediated and humoral immunity in asymptomatic dogs. Parasite Immunol 14: 531539.[Crossref]
  10. Cardoso L, Neto F, Sousa JC, Rodrigues M, Cabral M, , 1998. Use of a leishmanin skin test in the detection of canine Leishmania-specific cellular immunity. Vet Parasitol 79: 213220.[Crossref]
  11. Ashford DA, Bozza M, Freire M, Miranda JC, Sherlock I, Eulalio C, Lopes U, Fernandes O, Degrave W, Barker RH, Jr Badaro R, David JR, , 1995. Comparison of the polymerase chain reaction and serology for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 251255.
  12. Mathis A, Deplazes P, , 1995. PCR and in vitro cultivation for detection of Leishmania spp. in diagnostic samples from humans and dogs. J Clin Microbiol 33: 11451149.
  13. Reale S, Maxia L, Vitale F, Glorioso NS, Caracappa S, Vesco G, , 1999. Detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs by PCR with lymph node aspirates and blood. J Clin Microbiol 37: 29312935.
  14. Berrahal F, Mary C, Roze M, Berenger A, Escoffier K, Lamouroux D, Dunan S, , 1996. Canine leishmaniasis: identification of asymptomatic carriers by polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 273277.
  15. Valladares JE, Riera C, Alberola J, Gallego M, Portus M, Cristofol C, Franquelo C, Arboix M, , 1998. Pharmacokinetics of meglumine antimoniate after administration of a multiple dose in dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum . Vet Parasitol 75: 3340.[Crossref]
  16. Rodriguez-Cortes A, Ojeda A, Lopez-Fuertes L, Timon M, Altet L, Solano-Gallego L, Sanchez-Robert E, Francino O, Alberola J, , 2007. A long term experimental study of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Int J Parasitol 37: 683693.[Crossref]
  17. Reed SG, Shreffler WG, Burns JM, Jr Scott JM, Orge Mda G, Ghalib HW, Siddig M, Badaro R, , 1990. An improved serodiagnostic procedure for visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 632639.
  18. Riera C, Valladares JE, Gallego M, Aisa MJ, Castillejo S, Fisa R, Ribas N, Carrio J, Alberola J, Arboix M, , 1999. Serological and parasitological follow-up in dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum and treated with meglumine antimoniate. Vet Parasitol 84: 3347.[Crossref]
  19. Solano-Gallego L, Riera C, Roura X, Iniesta L, Gallego M, Valladares JE, Fisa R, Castillejo S, Alberola J, Ferrer L, Arboix M, Portus M, , 2001. Leishmania infantum-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibody responses in healthy and ill dogs from endemic areas. Evolution in the course of infection and after treatment. Vet Parasitol 96: 265276.[Crossref]
  20. Rodriguez A, Solano-Gallego L, Ojeda A, Quintana J, Riera C, Gallego M, Portus M, Alberola J, , 2006. Dynamics of Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis before and after treatment. J Vet Intern Med 20: 495498.[Crossref]
  21. Peng ZK, Simons FE, Becker AB, , 1991. Differential binding properties of protein A and protein G for dog immunoglobulins. J Immunol Methods 145: 255258.[Crossref]
  22. Barajas-Rojas JA, Riemann HP, Franti CE, , 1993. Notes about determining the cut-off value in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prev Vet Med 15: 231233.[Crossref]
  23. Bray RS, Chang KP, Bray RS, , 1985. Immunodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. , eds. Leishmaniasis. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
  24. Alberola J, Rodriguez A, Francino O, Roura X, Rivas L, Andreu D, , 2004. Safety and efficacy of antimicrobial peptides against naturally acquired leishmaniasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48: 641643.[Crossref]
  25. Francino O, Altet L, Sanchez-Robert E, Rodriguez A, Solano-Gallego L, Alberola J, Ferrer L, Sanchez A, Roura X, , 2006. Advantages of real-time PCR assay for diagnosis and monitoring of canine leishmaniosis. Vet Parasitol 137: 214221.[Crossref]
  26. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD, , 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Method 25: 402408.[Crossref]
  27. Böyum A, , 1968. Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 21: 7789.[Crossref]
  28. Newcombe NG, , 1998. Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med 17: 857872.[Crossref]
  29. Deeks JJ, Altman DG, , 1999. Sensitivity and specificity and their confidence intervals cannot exceed 100%. BMJ 318: 193194.[Crossref]
  30. Simel DL, Samsa GP, Matchar DB, , 1991. Likelihood ratios with confidence: sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies. J Clin Epidemiol 44: 763770.[Crossref]
  31. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y, , 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate—a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc, B 57: 289300.
  32. Jaeschke R, Guyatt G, Sackett DL, , 1994. Users’ guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 271: 389391.[Crossref]
  33. Christenson RH, , 2007. Evidence-based laboratory medicine—a guide for critical evaluation of in vitro laboratory testing. Ann Clin Biochem 44: 111130.[Crossref]
  34. Fischer JE, Bachmann LM, Jaeschke R, , 2003. A readers’ guide to the interpretation of diagnostic test properties: clinical example of sepsis. Intensive Care Med 29: 10431051.[Crossref]
  35. Feinstein AR, , 1975. Clinical biostatistics XXXI. On the sensitivity, specificity, and discrimination of diagnostic tests. Clin Pharmacol Ther 17: 104116.[Crossref]
  36. Fagan TJ, , 1975. Letter: nomogram for Bayes theorem. N Engl J Med 293: 257.
  37. Deeks JJ, Altman DG, , 2004. Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios. BMJ 329: 168169.[Crossref]
  38. Maia C, Campino L, , Methods for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and immune response to infection. Vet Parasitol 158: 274287.[Crossref]
  39. Rodriguez-Cortes A, Fernandez-Bellon H, Ramis A, Ferrer L, Alberola J, Solano-Gallego L, , 2007. Leishmania-specific isotype levels and their relationship with specific cell-mediated immunity parameters in canine leishmaniasis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 116: 190198.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0366
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0366
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Jun 2009
  • Accepted : 17 Oct 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error