Volume 83, Issue 2_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including (26 pools), (23 pools), (15 pools); , (3 pools each); , (2 pools each); , , (1 pool each). Positive , , and was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Peters CJ, Linthicum KJ, Beran GW, , 1994. Rift Valley fever. , ed. Handbook of Zoonoses. Section B: Viral Zoonoses. Second edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 125138. [Google Scholar]
  2. Daubney RJ, Hudson R, Garham PG, , 1931. Enzootic hepatitis of Rift Valley fever: an undescribed virus disease of sheep cattle and man from East Africa. J. Pathol. Bact. 34: 545579.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Meegan JM, Hoogstraal H, Moussa MI, , 1979. An epizootic of Rift Valley fever in Egypt, 1977. Vet Rec 105: 124125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Hoogstraal HJ, Meegan M, Khalil GM, Adham FK, , 1979. The Rift Valley fever epizootic in Egypt 1977–1978. 2. Ecological and entomological studies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 73: 624629.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. McIntosh BM, Jupp PG, dos Santos I, Barnard BJ, , 1980. Vector studies on Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa. S Afr Med J 58: 127132. [Google Scholar]
  6. Meegan JM, Bailey CL, Monath TP, , 1988. Rift Valley fever. , ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 5176. [Google Scholar]
  7. Digoutte JP, Peters CJ, , 1989. General aspects of the 1987 Rift Valley fever epidemic in Mauritania. Res Virol 140: 2730.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Ksiazek TG, Jouan A, Meegan AM, Le Guenno B, Wilson ML, Peters CJ, Digoutte PJ, Guillaud M, Merzoug NO, Touray EM, , 1989. Rift Valley fever among domestic animals in the recent West African outbreak. Res Virol 140: 6777.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Morvan JP, Rollin E, Laventure S, Rakotoarivony I, Roux J, , 1992. Rift Valley fever epizootic in the central highlands of Madagascar. Res Virol 143: 407415.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Arthur RR, el-Sharkawy MS, Cope SE, Botros BA, Oun S, Morrill JC, Shope RE, Hibbs RG, Darwish MA, Imam IZ, , 1993. Recurrence of Rift Valley fever in Egypt. Lancet 342: 11491150.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Woods CW, Karpati AM, Grein T, McCarthy N, Gaturuku P, Muchiri E, Dunster L, Henderson A, Khan AS, Swanepoel R, Bonmarin I, Martin L, Mann P, Smoak BL, Ryan M, Ksiazek TG, Arthur RR, Ndikuyeze A, Agata NN, Peters CJ, , 2002. An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997–1998. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 138144.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST, , 2004. Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa. J Virol 78: 89228926.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Davies FG, Linthicum KJ, James AD, , 1985. Rainfall and epizootic Rift Valley fever. Bull World Health Organ 63: 941943. [Google Scholar]
  14. Fontenille D, Traore-Lamizana M, Diallo M, Thonnon J, Digoutte JP, Zeller HG, , 1998. New vectors of Rift Valley fever in West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 4: 289293.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. McIntosh BM, Jupp PG, Dos Santos I, Barnard BJ, , 1980. Vector studies on Rift Valley fever virus in South Africa. S Afr Med J 58: 127132. [Google Scholar]
  16. Turell MJ, Rossi CA, Bailey CL, , 1985. Effect of extrinsic incubation temperature on the ability of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens to transmit Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 12111218. [Google Scholar]
  17. Gargan TP, 2nd Clark GG, Dohm DJ, Turell MJ, Bailey CL, , 1988. Vector potential of selected North American mosquito species for Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38: 440446. [Google Scholar]
  18. Turell MJ, Bailey CL, Beaman JR, , 1988. Vector competence of a Houston, Texas strain of Aedes albopictus for Rift Valley fever virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4: 9496. [Google Scholar]
  19. Turell MJ, Presley SM, Gad AM, Cope SE, Dohm DJ, Morrill JC, Arthur RR, , 1996. Vector competence of Egyptian mosquitoes for Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54: 136139. [Google Scholar]
  20. Linthicum KJ, Davies FG, Kairo A, Bailey CL, , 1985. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya. J Hyg (Lond) 95: 197209.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Davies FG, , 1975. Observations on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. J Hyg (Lond) 75: 219230.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Miller BR, Mitchell CJ, Ballinger ME, , 1989. Replication, tissue tropisms and transmission of yellow fever virus in Aedes albopictus . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 252255.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Anyamba AJ, Chretien P, Small J, Tucker CJ, Linthicum KJ, , 2006. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006–2007. Int J Health Geogr 5: 60.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. DoD-GEISWeb, 2007. Rift Valley Fever Monitor. Available at: http://www.geis.fhp.osd.mil/GEIS/SurveillanceActivities/RVFWeb/monthlypages/0612.htm. U.S. Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System. Accessed November 2006. [Google Scholar]
  25. CDC, 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak–Kenya, November 2006–January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 7376. [Google Scholar]
  26. Statoids, 2007. Administrative Subdivisions of Countries. Available at: http://www.statoids.com/yke.html. Accessed 2005. [Google Scholar]
  27. Mbogo CM, Mwangangi CM, Nzovu J, Gu W, Yan G, Gunter JT, Swalm C, Keating J, Regens JL, Shililu JL, Githure JI, Beier JC, , 2003. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum transmission along the Kenyan coast. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 734742. [Google Scholar]
  28. Wikipedia, 2007. Biomes. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_forests_of_eastern_Africa. Accessed December 2009. [Google Scholar]
  29. Keating J, Mbogo CM, Mwangangi JM, Nzovu JG, Gu W, Regens JL, Yan G, Githure JI, Beier JC, , 2005. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus mosquito distributions at 30 villages along the Kenyan coast. J Med Entomol 42: 241246.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Mwangangi JM, Muturi EJ, Shililu J, Muriu SM, Jacob B, Kabiru EW, Mbogo CM, Githure J, Novak R, , 2006. Survival of immature Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in aquatic habitats in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, central Kenya. Malar J 5: 114.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Ryan JR, Mbui J, Rashid JR, Wasunna MK, Kirigi G, Magiri C, Kinoti D, Ngumbi PM, Martin SK, Odera SO, Hochberg LP, Bautista CT, Chan AS, , 2006. Spatial clustering and epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmaniasis in two endemic villages, Baringo District, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 308317. [Google Scholar]
  32. O'Guinn ML, Turell MJ, , 2002. Effect of triethylamine on the recovery of selected South American alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) pools. J Med Entomol 39: 806808.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Edwards FW, , 1941. Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian region III. Culicine Adults and Pupae. London, UK: British Museum (Nat. Hist.). [Google Scholar]
  34. Gillies MT, DeMeillon B, , 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical region). Second edition. Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Institute of Medical Research. [Google Scholar]
  35. Matthysse JG, Colbo MH, , 1987. The Ixodid Ticks of Uganda: Together with Species Pertinent to Uganda because of Their Present Known Distribution. College Park, MD: Entomological Society of America. [Google Scholar]
  36. Harbach RE, , 1988. The Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Gainsville, FL: contribution of the American Entomological Institute. [Google Scholar]
  37. Jupp PG, , 1996. Mosquitoes of Southern Africa: Culicinae and Toxorhynchitinae. Hartebeespoort, South Africa: Ekogilde Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  38. Okello-Onen JS, Hassan M, Essuman S, , 1999. Taxonomy of African Ticks: An Identification Manual. Nairobi, Kenya: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology: African Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science. [Google Scholar]
  39. Detinova TS, , 1962. Age-grouping methods in Diptera of medical importance with special reference to some vectors of malaria. Monogr Ser World Health Organ 47: 13191. [Google Scholar]
  40. O'Guinn ML, Lee JS, Kondig JP, Fernandez R, Carbajal F, , 2004. Field detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the Amazon Basin region of Peru using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction adapted for field identification of arthropod-borne pathogens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 164171. [Google Scholar]
  41. Davies FG, Highton RB, , 1980. Possible vectors of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 74: 815816.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Jupp PG, Grobbelaar AA, Leman PA, Kemp A, Dunton RF, Burkot TR, Ksiasek TG, Swanepoel R, , 2000. 2002 experimental detection of Rift Valley fever virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in large samples of mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 37: 467471.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  43. Miller BR, Godsey MS, Crabtree MB, Savage HM, Al-Mazrao Y, Al-Jeffri MH, Abdoon AM, Al-Seghayer SM, Al-Shahrani AM, Ksiazek TG, , 2002. Isolation and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Aedes vexans arabiensis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 14921494.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. Fontenille D, Traore-Lamizana M, Zeller H, Mondo M, Diallo M, Digoutte JP, , 1995. Short report: Rift Valley fever in western Africa: isolations from Aedes mosquitoes during an interepizootic period. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 403404. [Google Scholar]
  45. Zeller HG, Fontenille D, Traore-Lamizana M, Thiongane Y, Digoutte JP, , 1997. Enzootic activity of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 265272. [Google Scholar]
  46. White GB, , 1975. Notes on a catalogue of Culicidae of the Ethiopian region. Mosq Syst 7: 303344. [Google Scholar]
  47. Huang Y-M, , 1985. A new African species of Aedes (Diptera:Culicidae). Mosq Sys 17: 108117. [Google Scholar]
  48. de Meillon B, , 1947. The Anophelini of the Ethiopian geographical region. S Afr Inst Med Res 10: 1272. [Google Scholar]
  49. Linthicum KJ, Davies FG, Bailey CL, Kairo A, , 1983. Mosquito species succession in a dambo in an east African forest. Mosq News 43: 464470. [Google Scholar]
  50. Linthicum KJ, Davies FG, Bailey CL, Kairo A, , 1984. Mosquito species encountered in a flooded grassland dambo in Kenya. Mosq News 44: 228232. [Google Scholar]
  51. Snow WF, , 1983. Mosquito production and species succession from an area of irrigated rice fields in The Gambia, West Africa. J Trop Med Hyg 86: 237245.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  52. Muturi EJ, Mwangangi J, Shililu J, Muriu S, Jacob B, Kabiru E, Gu W, Mbogo C, Githure J, Novak R, , 2007. Mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in Mwea, Kenya. J Med Entomol 44: 336344.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  53. Digoutte JP, Jacobi JC, Robin Y, Gagnard VJ, , 1974. Zinga virus infection in man. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 67: 451457. [Google Scholar]
  54. Digoutte JP, Cordellier R, Robin Y, Pajot FX, Geoffrey B, , 1974. Zinga virus (Ar B 1976), a new arbovirus isolated in central Africa. Ann Microbiol (Paris) 125B: 107118. [Google Scholar]
  55. Miller BR, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Savage HM, Lutwama JJ, Lanciotti RS, Peters CJ, , 2000. First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 240246. [Google Scholar]
  56. Kokernot RH, McIntosh BM, Worth DE, Moraist DE, Weinbren MP, , 1962. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes collected at Lumbo, Mozambique. I. Lumbo virus, a new virus isolated from Aedes (Skusea) Pembaensis Theobald. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11: 678682. [Google Scholar]
  57. Anyamba A, Linthicum KJ, Tucker CJ, , 2001. Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Cad Saude Publica 17 (Suppl): 133140.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  58. Morvan J, Rollin PE, Laventure S, Rakotoarivony SI, Roux J, , 1992. Rift Valley fever epizootic in the central highlands of Madagascar. Res Virol 143: 407415.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  59. Diallo M, Nabeth P, Ba PK, Sall AA, Ba Y, Mondo M, Girault L, Abdalahi MO, Mathiot C, , 2005. Mosquito vectors of the 1998–1999 outbreak of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses (Bagaza, Sanar, Wesselsbron and West Nile) in Mauritania and Senegal. Med Vet Entomol 19: 119126.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 10 Jun 2009
  • Accepted : 17 Aug 2009
  • Published online : 05 Aug 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error