1921
Volume 83, Issue 2_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

We analyzed the extent of livestock involvement in the latest Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in Kenya that started in December 2006 and continued until June 2007. When compared with previous RVF outbreaks in the country, the 2006–07 outbreak was the most extensive in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels affecting thousands of animals in 29 of 69 administrative districts across six of the eight provinces. This contrasted with the distribution of approximately 700 human RVF cases in the country, where over 85% of these cases were located in four districts; Garissa and Ijara districts in Northeastern Province, Baringo district in Rift Valley Province, and Kilifi district in Coast Province. Analysis of livestock and human data suggests that livestock infections occur before virus detection in humans, as supported by clustering of human RVF cases around livestock cases in Baringo district. The highest livestock morbidity and mortality rates were recorded in Garissa and Baringo districts, the same districts that recorded a high number of human cases. The districts that reported RVF in livestock for the first time in 2006/07 included Kitui, Tharaka, Meru South, Meru central, Mwingi, Embu, and Mbeere in Eastern Province, Malindi and Taita taveta in Coast Province, Kirinyaga and Murang'a in Central Province, and Baringo and Samburu in Rift Valley Province, indicating that the disease was occurring in new regions in the country.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0292
2010-08-05
2017-04-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/2_Suppl/58.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0292&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bishop DH, Calisher CH, Casals J, Chumakov MP, Gaidamovich SY, Hannoun C, Lvov DK, Marshall LD, Oker-Blom N, Pettersson RF, Porterfield JS, Russell PK, Shope RE, Westaway EG, , 1980. Bunyaviridae. Intervirology 14: 125143.[Crossref]
  2. Daubney R, Hudson JR, Granham PC, , 1931. Enzootic hepatitis or Rift Valley fever: an undescribed virus disease of sheep, cattle and man from East Africa. J Pathol Bacteriol 34: 545579.[Crossref]
  3. Meegan JM, Bailey CH, Monath TP, , 1988. Rift Valley fever. , ed. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology. Volume 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 5176.
  4. Woods CW, Karpati AM, Grein T, McCarthy N, Gaturuku P, Muchiri E, Dunster L, Henderson A, Khan AS, Swanepoel R, Bonmarin I, Martin L, Mann P, Smoak BL, Ryan M, Ksiazek TG, Arthur RR, Ndikuyeze A, Agata NN, Peters CJ, ; World Health Organization Hemorrhagic Fever Task Force, 2002. An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in northeastern Kenya, 1997–1998. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 138144.[Crossref]
  5. El Akkad AM, , 1978. Rift Valley fever in Egypt, October–December 1977. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 53: 137146.
  6. Zeller HG, Fontenille D, Traore-Lamizana M, Thiongane Y, Digoutte JP, , 1997. Enzootic activity of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 265272.
  7. Al-Afaleq AI, Abu Elzein EM, Mousa SM, Abbas AM, , 2003. A retrospective study of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia. Rev Sci Tech 22: 867871.
  8. Shoemaker T, Boulianne C, Vincent MJ, Pezzanite L, Al-Qahtani MM, Al-Mazrou Y, Khan AS, Rollin PE, Swanepoel R, Ksiazek TC, Nichol ST, , 2002. Genetic analysis of viruses associated with emergence of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000–2001. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 14151420.[Crossref]
  9. Amwayi SA, Gould LH, Sharif SK, Nguku PM, Omolo J, Mutonga D, Rao C, Lederman E, Sshnable D, Sang R, Paweska JT, Katz M, Hightower A, Kariuki Njenga M, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, , 2010. Risk factors for severe Rift Valley fever infection in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83 (Suppl 2): 1421.
  10. World Health Organization (WHO), 2007. RVF fact sheet. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheet/fs207/en/index.html. Accessed August 21, 2008.
  11. Swanepoel R, Coetzer JAW, Coetzer JA, Tustin RC, , 2004. Rift Valley fever. , eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock. Volume 2, Second edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 10371070.
  12. Davies FG, , 1975. Observations on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. J Hyg Camb 75: 219229.[Crossref]
  13. Kenya Ministry of Livestock Development, 1998. Annual Report on Livestock Health, Nairobi, Kenya.
  14. Davies FG, Kilelu D, Linthicum KJ, Pegram RG, , 1992. Patterns of Rift Valley fever activity in Zambia. Epidemiol Infect 108: 185191.[Crossref]
  15. Evans A, Gakuya F, Paweska JT, Rostal M, Akoolo L, Van Vuren PJ, Manyibe T, Macharia JM, Ksiazek TG, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, Kariuki Njenga M, , 2008. Prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in Kenyan wildlife. Epidemiol Infect 136: 12611269.[Crossref]
  16. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2006. Possible RVF activity in the Horn of Africa. EMPRES Watch, Nov 2006. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/217874/EW_hornafrica_nov06_rvf.pdf. Accessed June 20, 2008.
  17. Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Williams AJ, Bressler DS, Martin ML, Swanepoel R, Burt FJ, Leman PA, Khan AS, Rowe AK, Mukun R, Sanchez A, Peters CJ, , 1999. Clinical virology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF): virus, virus antigen, and IgG and IgM antibody findings among EHF patients in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995. J Infect Dis 179: S177S187.[Crossref]
  18. Bird BH, Bawiec DA, Ksiazek TG, Shoemaker TR, Nichol ST, , 2007. Highly sensitive and broadly reactive quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for high-throughput detection of Rift Valley fever virus. J Clin Microbiol 45: 35063513.[Crossref]
  19. Bird BH, Githinji JW, Macharia JM, Kasiiti JL, Murithi RM, Gacheru SG, Musaa JO, Towner JS, Reeder SA, Oliver JB, Erickson BR, Morgan LT, Khristova ML, Hartman AL, Comer JA, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, , 2008. Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006–2007. J Virol 82: 1115211166.[Crossref]
  20. Paweska JT, Burt FJ, Anthony F, Smith SJ, Grobbelaar AA, Croft JE, Ksiazek TG, Swanepoel R, , 2003. IgG-sandwich and IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in domestic ruminants. J Virol Methods 113: 103112.[Crossref]
  21. Nguku P, Sharif SK, Mutonga D, Amwayi S, Omollo J, Mohammed O, Farnon EC, Gould LH, Lederman E, Rao C, Sang R, Schnabel D, Feikin DR, Hightower A, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, , 2010. Investigation of a major outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, 2006–2007: clues and enigmas concerning Rift Valley fever outbreaks and their prevention. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83 (Suppl 2): 513.[Crossref]
  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak - Kenya, November 2006–January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 7376.
  23. Murithi RM, Munyua P, Ithondeka PM, Macharia JM, Hightower A, Luman ET, Breiman RF, Njenga MK, , 2010. Rift Valley fever in Kenya: history of epizootics and identification of vulnerable districts. Epidemiol Infect May 18:19 [E-pub ahead of print].
  24. Sang R, Kioko E, Lutomiah J, Warigia M, Ochieng C, O'Guinn M, Lee JS, Cheruiyot P, Koka H, Godsey M, Hoel D, Hanafi H, Miller B, Schnabel D, Breiman RF, Richardson J, , 2010. Rift Valley fever virus epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83 (Suppl 2): 2837.[Crossref]
  25. Nzietchueng S, Bett B, Njogu G, Jost C, Mariner J, , 2007. Participatory assessment of Rift Valley surveillance and response activities. Learning the Lessons of Rift Valley Fever: Improved Detection and Mitigation of Outbreaks. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI, 2157.
  26. Government of Kenya, 1982. Exploratory Soil Survey Report. Number E1. Kenya Soil survey, Nairobi.
  27. Turell MJ, Rossi CA, , 1991. Potential for mosquito transmission of attenuated strains of Rift Valley fever virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 278282.
  28. Olaleye BO, 1996. Rift Valley fever in Nigeria: infections in humans. Rev Sci Tech Off Into Epic 15: 923935.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0292
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0292
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 May 2009
  • Accepted : 06 Aug 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error