Volume 82, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To determine the thermal contribution, independent of ultraviolet radiation, on the inactivation of during solar water disinfection procedures (SODIS), oocysts were exposed for 4, 8, and 12 hours to temperatures recorded in polyethylene terephthalate bottles in previous SODIS studies carried out under field conditions. Inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide, spontaneous excystation, and infectivity studies were used to determine the inactivation of oocysts. There was a significant increase in the percentage of oocysts that took up propidium iodide and in the number of oocysts that excysted spontaneously. There was also a significant decrease in the intensity of infection elicited in suckling mice at the end of all exposure times. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of temperature in the inactivation of oocysts during application of SODIS under natural conditions.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Fayer R, , 2004. Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite. Vet Parasitol 126: 3756.[Crossref]
  2. Xiao L, Ryan UM, , 2004. Cryptosporidiosis: an update in molecular epidemiology. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17: 483490.[Crossref]
  3. Clancy JL, Hargy TM, Fayer R, Xiao L, , 2007. Waterborne: drinking water. , eds. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. Second edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 305333.[Crossref]
  4. WHO/UNICEF, 2005. Water for Life: Making It Happen. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2005/en/index.html. Accessed May 4, 2009
  5. WHO/UNICEF, 2007. The State of the World's Children: 2008. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc08/report/report.php. Accessed May 4, 2009
  6. EAWAG, 2008. Solar Water Disinfection: The Method. Available at: http://www.sodis.ch/Text2002/T-TheMethod.htm. Accessed May 4, 2009
  7. Wegelin M, Canonica S, Mechsner K, Fleischmann T, Pesaro F, Metzler A, , 1994. Solar water disinfection: scope of the process and analysis of radiation experiments. J Water SRT-Aqua 43: 154169.
  8. McGuigan KG, Joyce TM, Conroy RM, Gillespie JB, Elmore-Meegan M, , 1998. Solar disinfection of drinking water contained in transparent plastic bottles: characterizing the bacterial inactivation process. J Appl Microbiol 84: 11381148.[Crossref]
  9. Joyce TM, McGuigan KG, Elmore-Meegan M, Conroy RM, , 1996. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 399402.
  10. Smith RJ, Kehoe SC, McGuigan KG, Barer MR, , 2000. Effects of simulated solar disinfection of water on infectivity of Salmonella typhimurium. Lett Appl Microbiol 31: 284288.[Crossref]
  11. Conroy RM, Elmore-Meegan M, Joyce T, McGuigan KG, Barnes J, , 2001. Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in children under 6 years of age. Arch Dis Child 85: 293295.[Crossref]
  12. Kehoe SC, Barer MR, Devlin LO, McGuigan KG, , 2004. Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Shigella dysenteriae type I. Lett Appl Microbiol 38: 410414.[Crossref]
  13. Lonnen J, Kilvington S, Kehoe SC, Al-Touati F, McGuigan KG, , 2005. Solar and photocatalytic disinfection of protozoan, fungal, and bacterial microbes in drinking water. Water Res 39: 877883.[Crossref]
  14. Heaselgrave W, Patel N, Kilvington S, Kehoe SC, McGuigan KG, , 2006. Solar disinfection of poliovirus and Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts in water: a laboratory study using simulated sunlight. Lett Appl Microbiol 43: 125130.[Crossref]
  15. McGuigan KG, Méndez-Hermida F, Castro-Hermida JA, Ares-Mazás E, Kehoe SC, Boyle M, Sichel C, Fernández-Ibáñez P, Meyer BP, Ramalingham S, Meyer EA, , 2006. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water. J Appl Microbiol 101: 453463.[Crossref]
  16. Boyle M, Sichel C, Fernández-Ibáñez P, Arias-Quiroz GB, Iriarte-Puña M, Mercado A, Ubomba-Jaswa E, McGuigan KG, , 2008. Bacterial effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 29973001.[Crossref]
  17. Méndez-Hermida F, Castro-Hermida JA, Ares-Mazás E, Kehoe SC, McGuigan KG, , 2005. Effect of batch-process solar disinfection on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 16531654.[Crossref]
  18. Méndez-Hermida F, Ares-Mazás E, McGuigan KG, Boyle M, Sichel C, Fernández-Ibáñez P, , 2007. Disinfection of drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under natural sunlight and using the photocatalyst TiO2 . J Photochem Photobiol B 88: 105111.[Crossref]
  19. King BJ, Hoefel D, Daminato DP, Fanok S, Monis PT, , 2008. Solar UV reduces Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity in environmental waters. J Appl Microbiol 104: 13111323.[Crossref]
  20. Gómez-Couso H, Fontán-Saínz M, Sichel C, Fernández-Ibáñez P, Ares-Mazás E, , 2009. Efficacy of SODIS method in turbid waters experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under real field conditions. Trop Med Int Health 14: 620627.[Crossref]
  21. Kilani RT, Sekla L, , 1987. Purification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites by cesium chloride and Percoll gradients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 505508.
  22. Lorenzo-Lorenzo MJ, Ares-Mazás ME, Villacorta-Martínez de Maturana I, Durán-Oreiro D, , 1993. Effect of ultraviolet disinfection of drinking water on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. J Parasitol 79: 6770.[Crossref]
  23. Amar CF, Dear PH, McLauchlin J, , 2004. Detection and identification by real time PCR/RFLP analyses of Cryptosporidium species from human faeces. Lett Appl Microbiol 38: 217222.[Crossref]
  24. Robertson LJ, Campbell AT, Smith HV, , 1993. In vitro excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum. Parasitol 106: 1319.[Crossref]
  25. Campbell AT, Robertson LJ, Smith HV, , 1992. Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: correlation of in vitro excystation with inclusion or exclusion of fluorogenic vital dyes. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 34883493.
  26. Dowd SE, Pillai SD, , 1997. A rapid viability assay for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts for use in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody detection. Can J Microbiol 43: 658662.[Crossref]
  27. Peeters JE, Mazás EA, Masschelein WJ, Villacorta Martínez de Maturana I, Debacker E, , 1989. Effect of disinfection of drinking water with ozone or chlorine dioxide on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 15191522.
  28. Peng X, Murphy T, Holden NM, , 2008. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the die-off rate for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water, soils, and feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 71017107.[Crossref]
  29. Fayer R, , 1994. Effect of high temperature on infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 27322735.
  30. King BJ, Keegan AR, Monis PT, Saint CP, , 2005. Environmental temperature controls Cryptosporidium oocyst metabolic rate and associated retention of infectivity. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 38483857.[Crossref]
  31. Smith HV, Nichols RA, Grimason AM, , 2005. Cryptosporidium excystation and invasion: getting to the guts of the matter. Trends Parasitol 21: 133142.[Crossref]
  32. Gómez-Couso H, Fontán-Sainz M, Fernández-Alonso J, Ares-Mazás E, , 2009. Excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum at temperatures that are reached during solar water disinfection. Parasitol 136: 393399.[Crossref]
  33. Widmer G, Klein P, Bonilla R, , 2007. Adaptation of Cryptosporidium oocysts to different excystation conditions. Parasitol 134: 15831588.[Crossref]
  34. Robertson LJ, Gjerde BK, , 2007. Cryptosporidium oocysts: challenging adversaries? Trends Parasitol 23: 344347.[Crossref]
  35. Vetterling JM, Doran DJ, , 1969. Storagen polysaccharide in coccidial sporozites after excystation and penetration of cells. J Protozool 16: 772775.[Crossref]
  36. Fayer R, Trout JM, Jenkins MC, , 1998. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts stored in water at environmental temperatures. J Parasitol 84: 11651169.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 26 May 2009
  • Accepted : 14 Jul 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error