Volume 82, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In Cyprus, leishmaniasis has been considered exclusively a veterinary problem. It was prevalent before 1945, and until its recent reemergence, it was nearly eradicated by 1996 as a consequence of the destruction of reservoir hosts and vectors. A survey carried out to provide an unbiased estimate of current transmission rates in dogs and humans showed a 9-fold increase in dog seroprevalence (reaching 14.9%) compared with 10 years ago. However, no human cases caused by were detected, although cases were reported recently. The 62 strains isolated from dogs were typed as MON-1 (98.4%), which is the predominating zymodeme in the Mediterranean region, and MON-98 (1.6%). The species (vector of in Cyprus), , and were the predominant species captured. Two transmission cycles seem to run in parallel in Cyprus: in dogs with and in humans with .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Dujardin JC, Campino L, Cañavate C, Dedet JP, Gradoni L, Soteriadou K, Mazeris A, Ozbel Y, Boelaert M, , 2008. Spread of vector-borne diseases and neglect of leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 10131018.[Crossref]
  2. Minter DM, Eitrem UR, Hart DT, , 1989. Leishmaniasis. , ed. The Current Status and New Strategies for Control, NATO ASI Series: Series A. Life Sciences. New York: Plenum Press, 207216.
  3. Adler S, , 1945. The sand flies of Cyprus (Diptera). Bull Entomol Res 36: 497511.[Crossref]
  4. Leger N, Depaquit J, Ferté H, Rioux JA, Gantier JC, Gramiccia M, Ludovisi A, Michaelides A, Christophi N, Economides P, , 2000. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera-Psychodidae) of the isle of Cyprus. II—Isolation and typing of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Nicolle, 1908 (zymodème MON-1) from Phlebotomus (Larroussius) tobbi Adler et Theodor, 1930. Parasite 7: 143146.[Crossref]
  5. Constantinou K, , 1998. Anopheles (malaria) eradication in Cyprus. Parassitologia 40: 131135.
  6. Polydorou K, , 1984. A short history of echinococcosis control in Cyprus. Hist Med Vet 9: 6164.
  7. Deplazes P, Grimm F, Papaprodromou M, Cavaliero T, Gramiccia M, Christofi G, Christofi N, Economides P, Eckert J, , 1998. Canine leishmaniosis in Cyprus due to Leishmania infantum MON 1. Acta Trop 71: 169178.[Crossref]
  8. Leger N, Depaquit J, , 2008. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 402.[Crossref]
  9. Alvar J, Cañavate C, Gutiérrez-Solar B, Jiménez M, Laguna F, López-Vélez R, Molina R, Moreno J, , 1997. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 10: 298319.
  10. Antoniou M, Haralambous C, Mazeris A, Pratlong F, Dedet JP, Soteriadou K, , 2008. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis 8: 67.[Crossref]
  11. Minodier P, Piarroux R, Gambarelli F, Joblet C, Dumon H, , 1997. Rapid identification of causative species in patients with Old World Leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 35: 25512555.
  12. World Health Organization, 1991. Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. Geneva: WHO.
  13. Rioux JA, Lanotte G, Serres E, Pratlong F, Bastien P, Perieres J, , 1990. Taxonomy of Leishmania. Use of isoenzymes. Suggestions for a new classification. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 65: 111125.[Crossref]
  14. Haralambous C, Antoniou M, Pratlong F, Dedet JP, Soteriadou K, , 2008. Development of a molecular assay specific for the Leishmania donovani complex that discriminates L. donovani/Leishmania infantum zymodemes: a useful tool for typing MON-1. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60: 3342.[Crossref]
  15. Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, , 1988 Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods. 2nd ed. Boston: PWS-Kent: 512516.
  16. Antoniou M, Haralambous C, Mazeris A, Pratlong F, Dedet JP, Soteriadou K, , 2009. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 7677.[Crossref]
  17. Le Fichoux Y, Quaranta JF, Aufeuvre JP, Lelievre A, Marty P, Suffia I, Rousseau D, Kubar J, , 1999. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum parasitemia in asymptomatic blood donors living in an area of endemicity in southern France. J Clin Microbiol 37: 19531957.
  18. Hide M, Bañuls AL, Tibayrenc M, , 2001. Genetic heterogeneity and phylogenetic status of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum zymodeme MON-1: epidemiological implications. Parasitology 123: 425432.[Crossref]
  19. Mary C, Lamouroux D, Dunan S, Quilici M, , 1992. Western blot analysis of antibodies to Leishmania infantum antigens: potential of the 14-kD and 16-kD antigens for diagnosis and epidemiologic purposes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47: 764771.
  20. Riera C, Fisa R, Udina M, Gállego M, Portus M, , 2004. Detection of Leishmania infantum crytic infection in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (Eivissa, Balearic Island, Spain) by different diagnostic methods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 102110.[Crossref]
  21. Pampiglione S, Manson Bahr PEC, La Placa M, , 1975. Studies in Mediterranean leishmaniasis. III. The leishmanin skin test in Kala Azar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69: 6068.[Crossref]
  22. Weigle KA, Valderrama L, Arias AL, Santrich C, Saravia NG, , 1991. Leishmanin skin test standardization and evaluation of safety, dose, storage, longevity of reaction and sensitization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 260271.
  23. Romero HD, Silva LDA, Silva-Vergara ML, Rodrigues V, Costa RT, Guimarães SF, Alecrim W, Moraes-Souza H, Prata A, , 2009. Comparative study of serologic tests for the diagnosis of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 2733.
  24. Moral L, Rubio EM, Moya M, , 2002. A leishmanin skin test survey in the human population of l'Alacantí Region (Spain): implications for the epidemiology of Leishmania infantum infection in southern Europe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96: 129132.[Crossref]
  25. Desjeux P, , 1991. Information on the Epidemiology and Control of the Leishmanioses by Country or Territory. WHO/LEISH/91.30. Geneva: WHO.
  26. Howard MK, Ogunkolade W, Bryceson AD, Davidson RN, Moody AH, Miles MA, , 1992. A DNA probe for human visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86: 3536.[Crossref]
  27. Rastgeldi S, Özbel Y, Özensoy TS, Ertabaklar H, Göcmen B, , 2005. Phlebotominae sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the northern part of Cyprus island. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 82: 121.
  28. Rioux JA, Leger N, Haddad N, , 1998. Natural infestation of Phlenotomus tobbi (Diptera, Physholidae) by Leishmania donovani (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in Syria. Parassitologia 10: 148.
  29. Wheatley T, Sacks S, Flemans RJ, Rubenstein D, , 1983. Visceral leishmaniasis: a rare imported disease. J Infect 7: 166167.[Crossref]
  30. Valkoun A, Nádvorník V, Kostrhun L, , 1985. A case of visceral leishmaniasis imported from the Mediterranean. Cas Lek Cesk 124: 15821585.
  31. Nawaratna SS, Weilgama DJ, Wijekoon CJ, Dissanayake M, Rajapaksha K, , 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 10681070.[Crossref]
  32. Bucheton B, Kheir MM, El-Safi SH, Hammad A, Mergani A, Mary C, Abel L, Dessein A, , 2002. The interplay between environmental and host factors during an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. Microbes Infect 4: 14491457.[Crossref]
  33. Koliou M, Soteriades ES, Mazeris A, Antoniou M, Elia A, Novelli V, , 2008. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with Epstein Barr virus and Leishmania infantum co-infection in a child from Cyprus. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30: 704707.[Crossref]
  34. Alam MZ, Haralambous C, Kuhls K, Gouzelou E, Sgouras D, Soteriadou K, Schnur L, Pratlong F, Schönian G, , 2009. The paraphyletic composition of Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37 revealed by multilocus microsatellite typing. Microbes Infect 11: 707715.[Crossref]
  35. Moreno G, , 1989. Les complexes Leishmania donovani et Leishmania infantum. Implications taxinomiques, biogěographiques etěpiděmiologiques. A propos de l' analyse enzymatique de 548 souches de l'Ancient et du Nouveau Monde. PhD thesis, University of Montepellier, Montpellier, France.
  36. Schnur LF, Eisenberger CL, Naseredeen A, Dedet JP, Pratlong F, Jaffe CL, Benami R, , 2001. Adult visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani sensu stricto acquired locally in Israel. Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Leishmaniasis, May 20–24, 2001; Hersonissos, Crete, Greece.
  37. Karunaweera ND, Pratlong F, Siriwardane HV, Ihalamulla RL, Dedet JP, , 2003. Sri Lankan cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 380381.[Crossref]
  38. Moreno G, Rioux JA, Lanotte G, Pratlong F, Serres E, Rioux JA, , 1986. Leishmania, Toxonomie, Phylogénèse, Applications éco-épidémiologiques. , ed. Le complexe Leishmania donovani s.l. Analyse enzymatique et traitement numérique. Individualisation du complexe Leishmania infantum. Corollaires biogěographiques et phylétiques. A propos de 146 souches originaires de l'Ancien et du Nouveau Monde. Montpellier, France: IMEEE, 105117.
  39. Maroli M, Rossi L, Baldelli R, Capelli G, Ferroglio E, Genchi C, Gramiccia M, Mortarino M, Pietrobelli M, Gradoni L, , 2008. The northward spread of leishmaniasis in Italy: evidence from retrospective and ongoing studies on the canine reservoir and phlebotomine vectors. Trop Med Int Health 13: 256264.[Crossref]
  40. Ravel C, Cortes S, Pratlong F, Morio F, Detet JP, Campino L, , 2006. First report of genetic hybrids between two very divergent Leishmania species: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania major . Int J Parasitol 36: 13831388.[Crossref]
  41. Myskova J, Svobodova M, Beverley SM, Volf P, , 2007. A lipophosphoglycan—independent development of Leishmania in permissive sandflies. Microbes Infect 9: 317324.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 May 2009
  • Accepted : 04 Dec 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error