Volume 82, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Contaminated drinking water is responsible for causing diarrheal diseases that kill millions of people a year. Additionally, toxin-producing blue-green algae associated with diarrhea and neurologic effects continues to be an issue for many drinking water supplies. Disinfection has been used to reduce these risks. A novel gravity-fed household drinking water system with canisters containing N-halamine bromine or chlorine media was challenged with MS2 bacteriophage and microcystin. Chlorine and bromine systems were effective against this virus, with an mean ± SE reduction of 2.98 ± 0.26 log and 5.02 ± 0.19 log, respectively. Microcystin toxin was reduced by 27.5% and 88.5% to overall mean ± SE concentrations of 1,600 ± 98 ng/L and 259 ± 50 ng/L for the chlorine and bromine canisters, respectively. Only the bromine units consistently produced microcystin effluent < 1,000 ng/L (the World Health Organization recommended level) when challenged with 2,500 ng/L and consistently surpassed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency virus reduction goal of 99.99%.


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  • Received : 24 May 2009
  • Accepted : 25 Oct 2009
  • Published online : 05 Feb 2010

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