1921
Volume 82, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated for the largest outbreak recorded in Colombia. The outbreak began in 2003 in Chaparral, and in the following five years produced 2,313 cases in a population of 56,228. Candidate predictor variables were land use, elevation, and climatic variables such as mean temperature and precipitation. Spatial analysis showed that incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was higher in townships with mean temperatures in the middle of the county's range. Incidence was independently associated with higher coverage with forest or shrubs (2.6% greater for each additional percent coverage, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.5–4.9%), and lower population density (22% lower for each additional 100 persons/km, 95% CI = 7–41%). The extent of forest or shrub coverage did not show major changes over time. These findings confirmed the roles of climate and land use in leishmaniasis transmission. However, environmental variables were not sufficient to explain the spatial variation in incidence.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0218
2010-02-01
2017-11-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/82/2/243.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0218&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Beck LR, Lobitz BL, Wood BL, , 2000 Remote sensing and human health: new sensors and new opportunities. Emerg Infect Dis 6: 217227.[Crossref]
  2. Peterson AT, Shaw J, , 2003 Lutzomyia vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brasil: ecological niche models, predicted geographic distributions, and climate change effects. Int J Parasitol 33: 919931.[Crossref]
  3. Brownstein JS, Skelly DK, Holford TR, Fish D, , 2005 Forest fragmentation predicts local scale heterogeneity of Lyme disease risk. Oecologia 146: 469475.[Crossref]
  4. Brownstein JS, Holford TR, Fish D, , 2003 A climate-based model predicts the spatial distribution of the lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 111: 11521157.[Crossref]
  5. Cárdenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Franco-Paredes C, , 2006 Impact of climate variability in the occurrence of leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 273277.
  6. Malone JB, Yilma JM, McCarroll JC, Erko B, Mukaratirwa S, Zhou X, , 2001 Satellite climatology and the environmental risk of Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia and east Africa. Acta Trop 79: 5972.[Crossref]
  7. Gebre-Michael T, Malone JB, Balkew M, Ali A, Berhe N, Hailu A, Herzi AA, , 2004 Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems. Acta Trop 90: 7386.[Crossref]
  8. Silue KD, Raso G, Yapi A, Vounatsou P, Tanner M, N’goran EK, Utzinger J, , 2008 Spatially-explicit risk profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections at a small scale: a geostatistical modelling approach. Malar J 7: 111.[Crossref]
  9. Feliciangeli MD, Delgado O, Suarez B, Bravo A, , 2006 Leishmania and sand flies: proximity to woodland as a risk factor for infection in a rural focus of visceral leishmaniasis in west central Venezuela. Trop Med Int Health 11: 17851791.[Crossref]
  10. King RJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Davies CR, , 2004 Predicting geographic variation in cutaneous leishmaniasis, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 598607.[Crossref]
  11. Elnaiem DE, Schorscher J, Bendall A, Obsomer V, Osman ME, Mekkawi AM, Connor SJ, Ashford RW, Thomson MC, , 2003 Risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis: the role of local variation in rainfall and altitude on the presence and incidence of kala-azar in eastern Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 6: 1017.
  12. Sudhakar S, Srinivas T, Palit A, Kar SK, Battacharya SK, , 2006 Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar State, India: an RS and GIS approach. J Vector Borne Dis 43: 115122.
  13. Walsh JF, Molyneaux DH, Birley MH, , 1993 Deforestation: effects on vector-borne disease. Parasitology 106: 5575.[Crossref]
  14. Shaw J, , 1999 The Relationship of Sand Fly Ecology to the Transmission of Leishmaniasis in South America with Particular Reference to Brazil. Gainesville, FL: Associated Publishers.
  15. Davies CR, Reithinger R, Campbell-Lendrum D, Feliciangeli D, Borges R, Rodriguez N, , 2000 The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries. Cad Saude Publica 16: 925950.[Crossref]
  16. Zambrano P, , 2007 Comportamiento de la leishmaniasis en Colombia. Biomedica (Bogota) 27: 8384.
  17. Bejarano E, , 2006 Lista actualizada de Los psicódidos (Diptera: Psychodidae) de Colombia. Fla Entomol 45: 4756.
  18. Cabrera OL, Mosquera L, Santamaría E, Ferro C, , 2009 Flebótomos (Diptera: Psychodidae) del departamento de Guaviare, Colombia con nuevos registros para el país. Biomedica (Bogota) 29: 7386.[Crossref]
  19. Lewis DJ, Ward RD, , 1987 Transmission and Vectors. New York: Academic Press.
  20. Killick-Kendrick R, , 1990 Phlebotomus vectors of the leishmaniases: a review. Med Vet Entomol 4: 124.[Crossref]
  21. Corredor A, Kreutzer R, Tesh R, Boshell J, Palau M, Duque S, Pelaez D, Rodriguez G, Nicholls RS, Hernandez CA, Morales A, Young DG, Ferro C, , 1990 Distribution and etiology of leishmaniasis in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 206214.
  22. Muñoz G, , 1998 The Sandfly Vectors and Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Landázuri Focus, Colombia. PhD. Thesis. London: University of London.
  23. Saravia NG, Weigle K, Navas C, Segura I, Valderrama L, Valencia AZ, Escorcia B, McMahon-Pratt D, , 2002 Heterogeneity geographic distribution and pathogenicity of serodemes of Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 738744.
  24. Ovalle C, Porras L, Rey M, Ríos M, Camargo Y, , 2006 Distribución geográfica de especies de Leishmania aisladas de pacientes consultantes al Instituto Nacional de Dermatología Federico Lleras Acosta, ESE, 1995–2005. Biomedica (Bogota) 26: 145151.[Crossref]
  25. Morales DF, Castaño CS, Lozano EA, Vallejo HJ, , 2004 Descripción de la epidemia de leishmaniasis cutánea en Chaparral y San Antonio, 2003 y 2004 (semana 24). Inform Quinc J Epidemiol Nac 9: 177192.
  26. Rodríguez-Barraquer I, Góngora R, Prager M, Pacheco R, Montero LM, Navas A, Ferro C, Miranda MC, Saravia NG, , 2008 Etiologic agent of an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tolima, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 276282.
  27. Pardo RH, Cabrera OL, Becerra J, Fuya P, Ferro C, , 2006 Lutzomyia longiflocosa, posible vector en un foco de Leishmaniasis cutánea en la región subandina del departamento del Tolima, Colombia, y el conocimiento que tiene la población sobre este insecto. Biomedica (Bogota) 26: 95108.[Crossref]
  28. Pardo R, Ferro C, Lozano G, Lozano C, Cabrera O, Davies CR, , 1999 Flebótomos (Diptera: Psychodidae) Vectores de Leishmaniasis Cutánea y sus Determinantes Ecológicos en la zona Cafetera del Departamento del Huila. Memorias XXVI Congreso de la Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología, 147163.
  29. Cárdenas R, Romo G, Santamaría E, Bello F, Ferro C, , 1999 Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) posible vector en el foco de leishmaniasis cutánea del municipio de Planadas, zona cafetera del Tolima. Biomedica (Bogota) 19: 239244.[Crossref]
  30. Cárdenas R, Pabón E, Anaya H, Sandoval C, , 2005a. Presencia de Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) en el foco de leishmaniasis tegumentaria del municipio de Abrego, Norte de Santander. Primer registro para el departamento. Clon Rev Inst Fac Salud Univ Pamplon 3: 714.
  31. CIAF, 2005 Interpretación Visual de Imagenes de Sensores Remotos y su Aplicación en Levantamientos de Coberturas y Uso de la Tierra. Bogotá: Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi.
  32. Wilkie DS, Finn JT, , 1996 Remote Sensing Imagery for Natural Resource Monitoring. New York: Columbia University Press.
  33. Franke CR, Ziller M, Staubach C, Latif M, , 2002 Impact of the el niño/southern oscillation on visceral leishmaniasis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 914917.[Crossref]
  34. Bavia ME, Carneiro DD, Gurgel-Hda C, Madureira-Filho C, Barbosa MG, , 2005 Remote sensing and geographic information systems and risk of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil. Parassitologia 47: 165169.
  35. Chaves LF, Pascual M, , 2006 Climate cycles and forecasts of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a nonstationary vector-borne disease. PLoS Med 3: e295.[Crossref]
  36. Cardenas R, Sandoval CM, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Vivas P, , 2008 Zoonoses and climate variability. The example of leishmaniasis in southern departments of Colombia. Ann NY Acad Sci 1149: 326330.[Crossref]
  37. Mooney HA, Bullock SH, Medina E, , 1995 Introduction. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.[Crossref]
  38. Alexander N, Parra-Henao G, , 2007 Uses of entropy in medical research. CES Med 21: 6575.
  39. MacPherson DW, Gushulak BD, Macdonald L, , 2007 Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility. Bull World Health Organ 85: 200206.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0218
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0218
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Appendix

  • Received : 27 Apr 2009
  • Accepted : 17 Aug 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error