Volume 82, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with use in this study was high.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2004. Water, sanitation, and hygiene links to health: facts and figures. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/facts2004/en/. Accessed February 27, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  2. United Nations, 2000. Millennium Development Goals. Available at: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/. Accessed February 27, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ramakrishna B, Kang G, Rajan D, Mathan M, Mathan V, , 1996. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae 0139 from the drinking water supply during an epidemic of cholera. Trop Med Int Health 1: 854858.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Pai M, Kang G, Ramakrishna B, Venkataraman A, Muliyil J, , 1997. An epidemic of diarrhea in south India caused by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . Indian J Med Res 106: 712. [Google Scholar]
  5. Kang G, Ramakrishna B, Daniel J, Mathan M, Mathan V, , 2001. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation of outbreaks of diarrhoea in rural South India: implications for control of disease. Epidemiol Infect 127: 107112.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Sarkar R, Prabhakar A, Manickam S, Selvapandian D, Raghava M, Kang G, Balraj V, , 2007. Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of acute diarrhoeal disease using geographic information systems. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 587593.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Jensen P, Ensink J, Jayasinghe G, Van der Hoek W, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A, , 2002. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries. Trop Med Int Health 7: 604.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Brick T, Primrose B, Chandresekhar R, Roy S, Muliyil J, Kang G, , 2004. Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections. Int J Hyg Environ Health 207: 18.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Roberts L, Chartier Y, Chartier O, Malenga G, Toole M, Rodka H, , 2001. Keeping clean water clean in a Malawi refugee camp: a randomized intervention trial. Bull World Health Organ 79: 280287. [Google Scholar]
  10. Tumwine JK, , 2005. Clean drinking water for homes in Africa and other less developed countries. BMJ 331: 468469.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Madsen M, Schlundt J, Omer EF, , 1987. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on bacterial concentrations. J Trop Med Hyg 90: 101109. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sutherland J, , 1996. Moringa oleifera in water treatment. Available at: http://www.le.ac.uk/engineering/staff/Sutherland/moringa/water/water.htm. Accessed March 3, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  13. Sutherland J, Folkard G, Mtawali M, Grant W, , 1994. Moringa oleifera as a natural coagulant. Proceedings of the 20th Water, Engineering, and Development Center International Conference: Affordable Water Supply and Sanitation. Colombo, Sri Lanka: WEDC. [Google Scholar]
  14. Broin M, Santaella C, Cuine S, Kokou K, Peltier G, Joet T, , 2002. Flocculent activity of a recombinant protein from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60: 114119.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Amagloh FK, Benang A, , 2009. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as a coagulant for water purification. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4: 119123. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ayotunde E, Fagbenro O, Adebayo O, Amoo A, , 2004. Toxicity of Aqueous Extracts of Drumstick, Moringa oleifera, Seeds to Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fingerlings and Adults. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Manila, Phillipines, 200208. [Google Scholar]
  17. Grabow W, Slabert JL, Morgan W, Jahn S, , 1985. Toxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed preparation using fish protozoan, bacterial coliphage, enzyme, and Salmonella assay. Water SA 11: 914. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ezeji J, , 2008. Mor-sand filter. Available at: http://www.joachimezeji.com/mor-sand-filter/. Accessed March 3, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  19. Swerdlow D, Mintz E, Rodriguez M, Tejada E, Ocampo C, Espejo L, Greene K, Saldana W, Seminario L, Tauxe R, , 1992. Waterborne transmission of epidemic cholera in Trujillo, Peru: lessons for a continent at risk. Lancet 340: 2833.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. CDC/CARE Health Initiative, 2003. Safe Water Systems for the Developing World: A Handbook for Implementing Household-Based Water Treatment and Safe Storage Projects. Second printing. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/safewater/manual/sws_manual.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  21. Sobel JM, Mendoza CE, Passaro D, Cano F, Baier K, Racioppi F, Hutwagner L, Mintz E, , 1998. Reduction of fecal contamination of street-vended beverages in Guatemala by a simple system for water purification and storage, handwashing, and beverage storage. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 380387. [Google Scholar]
  22. Quick R, Venczel L, Mintz E, Soleto L, Aparicio J, Gironaz M, Hutwagner L, Greene K, Bopp C, Maloney K, Chavez D, Sobsey M, Tauxe R, , 1999. Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy. Epidemiol Infect 122: 8390.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Bing Fang H, Jaakkola J, Guo H, , 2008. Water disinfection by-products and the risk of specific birth defects: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan. Environ Health 7: 23.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Government of India Ministry of Rural Development, 2009. National Rural Drinking Water Programme: Movement Towards Ensuring People's Drinking Water Security in Rural India. Available at: http://ddws.nic.in/popups/FinalRWSGuideLines.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  25. Jacob A, Ramani S, Banerjee I, Kang G, , 2007. Efficacy and acceptability of chlorine dioxide water. Indian J Med Microbiol 25: 7475.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Freeman M, Quick R, Rheingans R, Abbott D, , 2003. Removing barriers to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in Western Kenya. [Google Scholar]
  27. Makutsa P, Nzaku K, Ogutu P, Barasa P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Quick R, , 2001. Challenges in implementing a point-of-use water quality intervention in rural Kenya. Am J Public Health 91: 15711573.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Cochran W, Cox G, , 1957. Experimental Designs. New York: Wiley. [Google Scholar]
  29. Senior B, Collee J, Duguid J, Fraser A, Marmion B, , 1989. Examination of water, milk, food and air. , eds. Practical Medical Microbiology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Press, 204213. [Google Scholar]
  30. Government of India Demographic and Health Survey, 2006. Demographic and Health Survey 2005–2006. Available at: http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FRIND3/02Chapter02.pdf. Accessed March 3, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  31. Clasen T, McLaughlin C, Nayaar N, Boisson S, Gupta R, Desai D, Shah N, , 2008. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India. J Trop Med Hyg 79: 407413. [Google Scholar]
  32. Banda K, Sarkar R, Gopal S, Govindarajan J, Harijan B, Jeyakumar M, Mitta P, Sadanala M, Selwyn T, Suresh C, , 2007. Water handling, sanitation and defecation practices in rural southern India: a knowledge, attitudes and practices study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 11241130.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Luby S, Agboatwalla M, Feikin D, Painter J, Billhimer W, Altaf A, Hoekstra R, , 2005. Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366: 225233.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Stratford Pharmacy, 2009. Cost of chlorine neutralizing tablets: US$0.07 each, 1 tablet to 1 liter. Available at: www.stratford-pharmacy.co.uk. Accessed March 3, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  35. Sobsey MD, Stauber CE, Casanova LM, Brown JM, Elliott MA, , 2008. Point of use household drinking water filtration: a practical, effective solution for providing sustained access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Environ Sci Technol 42: 42614267.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Apr 2009
  • Accepted : 25 Jan 2010
  • Published online : 05 May 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error