Volume 82, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios ( < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Grimaldi G, Jr Tesh RB, , 1993. Leishmaniases of the New World: current concepts and implications for future research. Clin Microbiol Rev 6: 230250.[Crossref]
  2. Salomon OD, Bogado De Pascual M, Molinari ML, Verri V, , 2001. Study of a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in General Vedia, Province of Chaco, 1996. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 43: 99104.[Crossref]
  3. Krolewiecki AJ, Romero HD, Cajal SP, Abraham D, Mimori T, Matsumoto T, Juarez M, Taranto NJ, , 2007. A randomized clinical trial comparing oral azithromycin and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis . Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 640646.
  4. Marco JD, Barroso PA, Calvopina M, Kumazawa H, Furuya M, Korenaga M, Cajal SP, Mora MC, Rea MM, Borda CE, Basombrio MA, Taranto NJ, Hashiguchi Y, , 2005. Species assignation of Leishmania from human and canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis cases by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis in north Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 606611.
  5. Barroso PA, Marco JD, Kato H, Tarama R, Rueda P, Cajal SP, Basombrio MA, Korenaga M, Taranto NJ, Hashiguchi Y, , 2007. The identification of sandfly species, from an area of Argentina with endemic leishmaniasis, by the PCR-based analysis of the gene coding for 18S ribosomal RNA. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 101: 247253.[Crossref]
  6. Salomon OD, Quintana MG, Zaidenberg M, , 2008. Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103: 282287.[Crossref]
  7. Salomon OD, Wilson ML, Munstermann LE, Travi BL, , 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in northern Argentina. J Med Entomol 41: 3339.[Crossref]
  8. Salomon OD, Zaidenberg M, Burgos R, Heredia VI, Caropresi SL, , 2001. American cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, Tartagal city, province of Salta, Argentina, 1993. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 43: 105108.[Crossref]
  9. Cordoba-Lanus E, De Grosso ML, Pinero JE, Valladares B, Salomon OD, , 2006. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai with Leishmania spp. in northwestern Argentina. Acta Trop 98: 15.[Crossref]
  10. Salomon OD, Sosa Estani S, Canini L, Cordoba Lanus E, , 2001. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in area with epidemic levels of transmission, Salta, Argentina, 1998 [in Spanish]. Medicina (B Aires) 61: 284290.
  11. Sosa-Estani S, Segura EL, Salomon OD, Gomez A, Peralta M, Coutada V, Ruiz LM, , 2000. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in northern Argentina: distribution of infection and disease, in three municipalities of Salta, 1990–1992. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33: 573582.[Crossref]
  12. Taranto NJ, Cajal SP, De Marzi MC, Fernandez MM, Frank FM, Bru AM, Minvielle MC, Basualdo JA, Malchiodi EL, , 2003. Clinical status and parasitic infection in a Wichi Aboriginal community in Salta, Argentina. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 554558.[Crossref]
  13. Zamorano E, Vargas J, , 1988. La rata negra (Rattus rattus Linneo, 1758) como plaga de los cultivos ibéricos de caña de azúcar. Detección, estima y control de los daños ocasionados. Bol Sanid Veg Plagas 14: 227240.
  14. Díaz M, Braun J, Mares M, Barquez R, , 2000. An update of the taxonomy, systematics, and distribution of the mammals of Salta Province, Argentina. Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History 10: 152.
  15. Kerr SF, Emmons LH, Melby PC, Liu C, Perez LE, Villegas M, Miranda R, , 2006. Leishmania amazonensis infections in Oryzomys acritus and Oryzomys nitidus from Bolivia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 10691073.
  16. Telleria J, Bosseno MF, Tarifa T, Buitrago R, Martinez E, Torrez M, Le Pont F, Breniere SF, , 1999. Putative reservoirs of Leishmania amazonensis in a sub-Andean focus of Bolivia identified by kDNA-polymerase chain reaction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94: 56.[Crossref]
  17. Marco JD, Padilla AM, Diosque P, Fernandez MM, Malchiodi EL, Basombrio MA, , 2001. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 649652.[Crossref]
  18. Reithinger R, Davies CR, , 1999. Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 530541.
  19. Ampuero J, Urdaneta M, Macêdo Vde O, , 2005. Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in children aged 0 to 5 years in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis . Cad Saude Publica 21: 161170.[Crossref]
  20. Salomon OD, Orellano PW, Quintana MG, Perez S, Sosa Estani S, Acardi S, Lamfri M, , 2006. Transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina [in Spanish]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 211219.
  21. Campbell-Lendrum D, Dujardin JP, Martinez E, Feliciangeli MD, Perez JE, Silans LN, Desjeux P, , 2001. Domestic and peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: changing epidemiological patterns present new control opportunities. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 159162.[Crossref]
  22. Oliveira CC, Lacerda HG, Martins DR, Barbosa JD, Monteiro GR, Queiroz JW, Sousa JM, Ximenes MF, Jeronimo SM, , 2004. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban-rural interface. Acta Trop 90: 155162.[Crossref]
  23. Yadon ZE, Rodrigues LC, Davies CR, Quigley MA, , 2003. Indoor and peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina: a retrospective case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 519526.
  24. Sosa-Estani S, Segura EL, Gomez A, Salomon OD, Peralta M, Coutada V, Ruiz LM, , 2001. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina: identification of risk factors in a case-cohort study of three municipalities in Salta. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 34: 511517.[Crossref]
  25. Elliott P, Wartenberg D, , 2004. Spatial epidemiology: current approaches and future challenges. Environ Health Perspect 112: 9981006.[Crossref]
  26. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, 2001. Resultados Provinciales del Censo. Información Seleccionada . Available at: http://www.indec.mecon.ar/webcenso/provincias_2/provincias.asp. Accessed November, 10, 2009.
  27. Kappelle M, Brown A, , eds., 2001. Bosque Nublados del Neotrópico. Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad Nacional de Biodiversidad.
  28. Pan American Health Organization, 2002. Módulos de Principios de Epidemiología para el Control de en Enfermedades PALTEX. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.
  29. Silverman B, , 1986. Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis. New York: Chapman and Hall.[Crossref]
  30. Aramayo CF, Gil JF, Cruz MC, Poma HR, Last MS, Rajal VB, , 2009. Diarrhea and parasitosis in Salta, Argentina. J Infect Dev Ctries 3: 105111.
  31. Chaves LF, Cohen JM, Pascual M, Wilson ML, , 2008. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e176.[Crossref]
  32. Kulldorff M, Nagarwalla N, , 1995. Spatial disease clusters: detection and inference. Stat Med 14: 799810.[Crossref]
  33. Perez AM, Thurmond MC, Grant PW, Carpenter TE, , 2005. Use of the scan statistic on disaggregated province-based data: foot-and-mouth disease in Iran. Prev Vet Med 71: 197207.[Crossref]
  34. Aparicio C, Bitencourt MD, , 2004. Spacial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis risk zones. Rev Saude Publica 38: 511516.[Crossref]
  35. Melby PC, , 1991. Experimental leishmaniasis in humans: a review. Rev Infect Dis 13: 10091017.[Crossref]
  36. Travi BL, Osorio Y, Melby PC, Chandrasekar B, Arteaga L, Saravia NG, , 2002. Gender is a major determinant of the clinical evolution and immune response in hamsters infected with Leishmania spp. Infect Immun 70: 22882296.[Crossref]
  37. Despommier D, Ellis B, Wilcox B, , 2007. The role of ecotones in emerging infectious diseases. EcoHealth 3: 281289.[Crossref]
  38. Chaves LF, Hernandez MJ, Dobson AP, Pascual M, , 2007. Sources and sinks: revisiting the criteria for identifying reservoirs for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol 23: 311316.[Crossref]
  39. Wasserberg G, Abramsky Z, Kotler B, Ostfeld R, Yarom I, Warburg A, , 2003. Anthropogenic disturbances enhance occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Israel deserts: patterns and mechanisms. Ecol Appl 13: 868881.[Crossref]
  40. Kochtcheeva L, Singh A, , 1999. An Assessment of Risks and Threats to Human Health Associated with the Degradation of Ecosystems. OMS-UNEP. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  41. Dobson A, , 2004. Population dynamics of pathogens with multiple host species. Am Nat 164: (Suppl 5): S64S78.[Crossref]
  42. Keesing F, Holt RD, Ostfeld RS, , 2006. Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecol Lett 9: 485498.[Crossref]
  43. Fichet-Calvet E, Jomaa I, Zaafouri B, Ashford R, Ben-Ismail R, Delattre P, , 2000. The spatio-temporal distribution of a rodent reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Appl Ecol 37: 603615.[Crossref]
  44. Chaves L, Pascual M, , 2006. Climate cycles and forecasts of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a nonstationary vector-borne disease. PLoS Med 3: e295.[Crossref]
  45. Moragues J, Fernandez A, , 2003. Uso de la Información Espacial para la Gestión en Salud. Buenos Aires: Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, 117.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 Mar 2009
  • Accepted : 29 Nov 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error