Volume 81, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We compared in a 5-year intervention study the cost-effectiveness of community-based environmental management intertwined with routine vertical control and of routine vertical control only. At baseline (year 2000), infestation levels and economic costs for vector control were comparable in intervention and control areas (house index, 2.23% versus 2.21% and US$21 versus US$24/yr/inhabitant, respectively). By 2004, house indices became 0.22% versus 2.36% and the costs were 29.8 US$ versus 36.7 US$/yr/inhabitant, respectively. The community cost made up 38.6% of the total economic cost in 2004 in the intervention areas against 23.5% in 2000. The average cost-effectiveness ratio for the intervention period 2001–2004, expressed as the societal cost incurred for the reduction (from baseline) of foci, was US$831.1 per focus in the intervention areas versus US$2,465.6 in the control areas. The intervention produced economic savings and health benefits that were sustained over the whole observation period.


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  • Received : 21 Mar 2008
  • Accepted : 25 Mar 2009

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