Volume 81, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To study drug resistance in Bannu district, a malaria-endemic area in Pakistan, molecular-based analyses were undertaken. In , antifolate resistance mutations were detected in gene codons 57, 58, and 117, with a 117N mutation frequency of 93.5%. All isolates exhibited double 59R + 108N mutations in , whereas the triple mutant 59R + 108N + 437G haplotype was found in 31.8% isolates. Furthermore, all (100%) isolates exhibited the key chloroquine resistance mutation, 76T, which is also associated with resistance to amodiaquine. Additionally, 1 86Y and D1042Y mutations were, respectively, detected in 32% and 9% isolates. These results indicate an emerging multi-drug resistance problem in and malaria parasites in Pakistan.


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  • Received : 22 Apr 2009
  • Accepted : 08 Jun 2009

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