Volume 81, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Long-term planning to prevent malaria epidemics requires in-depth understanding of immunity to in areas of unstable transmission. Cytokine responses to immunodominant epitope peptides from liver stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) were evaluated over a nine-month interval in adults and children in Kenya from a malaria epidemic–prone highland area after several years of low transmission. The proportion and magnitude of interferon-gamma ELISPOT responses and the proportion of interleukin-10 responders to LSA-1 and TRAP peptides tended to be higher in adults than children. Frequencies of interferon-gamma responders to these peptides were similar at the two time points, but responses were not consistently generated by the same persons. These results suggest that T cell memory to pre-erythrocytic stage malaria antigens is maintained but may be unavailable for consistent detection in peripheral blood, and that these antigens induce both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in this population.


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  • Received : 01 May 2008
  • Accepted : 24 Apr 2009

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