Volume 81, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


In 2006, 2,817 blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from the site of a 2005 eastern equine encephalitis outbreak in Chester County, TN. Using a polymerase chain reaction–based assay, 264 vertebrate hosts were identified from seven mosquito species. and fed on a diversity of mammalian, avian, and reptilian hosts, whereas and were predominantly mammalophagic. Overall, 27% of 16% of , and 7% of blood meals were acquired from avian hosts. No avian-derived blood meals were identified from The house finch, Carolina wren, and mourning dove were the most commonly identified avian host species. By incorporating this study with flight range, vector competence, and virus field isolation data, we assessed certain aspects of the enzootic and epizootic vectorial capacity of the mosquito species present at this outbreak site.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Eldridge BF, Scott TW, Day JF, Tabachnick WJ, 2000. Arbovirus diseases. BF Eldridge, JD Edman, eds. Medical Entomology: A Textbook on Public Health and Veterinary Problems Caused by Arthropods. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 415–460.
  2. Weaver SC, 2001. Eastern equine encephalitis. Service MW, ed. The Encyclopedia of Arthropod-transmitted Infections. New York: CABI Publishing, 151–159.
  3. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, 2006. Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, USA. J Med Entomol 43 : 1088–1093.
  4. Molaei G, Oliver J, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM, Howard JJ, 2006. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 : 1140–1147.
  5. Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Farajollahi A, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Benedict M, Anderson M, McMillen L, Unnasch TR, 2004. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4 : 71–82.
  6. Crans WJ, Schulze TL, 1986. Evidence incriminating Coquillettidia perturbans (Diptera: Culicidae) as an epizootic vector of eastern equine encephalitis. I. Isolation of EEE virus from C. perturbans during an epizootic among horses in New Jersey. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 11 : 178–184.
  7. Crans WJ, McNelly J, Schulze TL, Main A, 1986. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes sollicitans during an epizootic in southern New Jersey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 : 68–72.
  8. CDC, 2008. Confirmed and Probable Eastern Equine Encephalitis Cases, Human, United States, 19642007, By State. Available at: http://www.cde.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/pdf/EEE_Doc.pdf.
  9. Cupp EW, Klingler K, Hassan HK, Viguers LM, Unnasch TR, 2003. Transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 495–500.
  10. Hassan HK, Cupp EW, Hill GE, Katholi CR, Klingler K, Unnasch TR, 2003. Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69 : 641–647.
  11. Cupp EW, Tennessen KJ, Oldland WK, Hassan HK, Hill GE, Katholi CR, Unnasch TR, 2004. Mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997–2002 in a wetland in northeastern Mississippi. J Med Entomol 41 : 495–501.
  12. Aspen S, Savage HM, 2003. Polymerase chain reaction assay identifies North American members of the Culex pipiens complex based on nucleotide sequence differences in the acetyl-cholinesterase gene Ace.2. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19 : 323–328.
  13. Aspen S, Crabtree MB, Savage HM, 2003. Polymerase chain reaction assay identifies Culex nigripalpus: part of an assay for molecular identification of the common Culex (Culex) mosquitoes of the eastern United States. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19 : 115–120.
  14. Nasci RS, Edman JD, 1984. Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae): population structure and nectar feeding in a freshwater swamp and surrounding areas in southeastern Massachusetts, USA. J Med Entomol 21 : 567–572.
  15. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, 2006. Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis 12 : 468–474.
  16. Vaidyanathan R, Edman JD, Cooper LA, Scott TW, 1997. Vector competence of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Med Entomol 34 : 346–352.
  17. Chamberlain RW, Corristan EC, Sikes RK, 1954. Studies on the North American arthropod-borne encephalitides. VI. Quantitative determinations of virus-vector relationships. Am J Hyg 60 : 278–285.
  18. Day JF, Stark LM, 1996. Eastern equine encephalitis transmission to emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Volusia County, Florida: 1992 through 1994. J Am Mosq Assoc 12 : 429–436.
  19. Wozniak A, Dowda HE, Tolson MW, Karabatsos N, Vaughan DR, Turner PE, Ortiz DI, Wills W, 2001. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996–98. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17 : 73–78.
  20. Komar N, Dohm DJ, Turell MJ, Spielman A, 1999. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 387–391.
  21. Hayes RO, Daniels JB, Maxfield HK, Wheeler RE, 1964. Field and laboratory studies on eastern encephalitis in warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 13 : 595–606.
  22. Karstad L, 1961. Reptiles as possible reservoir hosts for eastern encephalitis virus. Trans N Am Wildl and Nat Res Conf 26 : 186–202.
  23. Day JF, Stark LM, Zhang JT, Ramsey AM, Scott TW, 1996. Antibodies to arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses in small mammals from southern Florida. J Wildl Dis 32 : 431–436.
  24. Luginbuhl RE, Satriano SF, Helmboldt CF, Lamson AL, Jungherr EL, 1958. Investigation of eastern equine encephalomyelitis. II. Outbreaks in Connecticut pheasants. Am J Hyg 67 : 4–9.
  25. Cupp EW, Zhang D, Yue X, Cupp MS, Guyer C, Sprenger TR, Unnasch TR, 2004. Identification of reptilian and amphibian blood meals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 272–276.
  26. Burkett-Cadena ND, Graham SP, Hassan HK, Guyer C, Eubanks MD, Katholi CR, Unnasch TR, 2008. Blood feeding patterns of potential arbovirus vectors of the genus Culex targeting ectothermic hosts. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79 : 809–815.
  27. Darsie RFJ, Ward RA, 2005. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. University Press of Florida, Gainsville.
  28. Zyzak M, Loyless T, Cope S, Wooster M, Day JF, 2002. Seasonal abundance of Culex nigripalpus Theobald and Culex salinarius Coquillett in north Florida, USA. J Vector Ecol 27 : 155–162.
  29. Robertson LC, Prior S, Apperson CS, Irby WS, 1993. Bionomics of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Culex erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Falls Lake basin, North Carolina: seasonal changes in abundance and gonotrophic status, and host-feeding patterns. J Med Entomol 30 : 689–698.
  30. Tempelis CH, Galindo P, 1975. Host-feeding patterns of Culex (Melanoconion) and Culex (Aedinus) mosquitoes collected in Panama. J Med Entomol 12 : 205–209.
  31. Edman JD, 1979. Host-feeding patterns of Florida mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) VI. Culex (Melanoconion). J Med Entomol 15 : 521–525.
  32. Gomes AC, Silva NN, Marques GR, Brito M, 2003. Host-feeding patterns of potential human disease vectors in the Paraiba Valley region, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Vector Ecol 28 : 74–78.
  33. Durden LA, McLean RG, Oliver JH Jr, Ubico SR, James AM, 1997. Ticks, Lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal Georgia and South Carolina. J Parasitol 83 : 1178–1182.
  34. Lord RD, Calisher CH, 1970. Further evidence of southward transport of arboviruses by migratory birds. Am J Epidemiol 92 : 73–78.
  35. Scherer WF, Sainz CC, De Mucha Macias J, Rubio-Brito R, Miura T, Dickerman RW, Warner DW, Dyer M, 1966. Serologic survey for neutralizing antibodies to eastern equine and western equine encephalitis viruses in man, wild birds and swine in southern Mexico during 1961. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15 : 211–218.
  36. Gruwell JA, Fogarty CL, Bennett SG, Challet GL, Vanderpool KS, Jozan M, Webb JP Jr, 2000. Role of peridomestic birds in the transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus in southern California. J Wildl Dis 36 : 13–34.
  37. Edman JD, Timperi R, Werner B, 1993. Epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Massachusetts. J Fla Mosq Contr Assoc 64 : 84–96.
  38. Howard JJ, Morris CD, Emord DE, Grayson MA, 1988. Epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in upstate New York, USA VII. Virus surveillance 1978–85, description of 1983 outbreak, and series conclusions. J Med Entomol 25 : 501–514.
  39. Nasci RS, Berry RL, Restifo RA, Parsons MA, Smith GC, Martin DA, 1993. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in Ohio during 1991. J Med Entomol 30 : 217–222.
  40. Magnarelli LA, 1977. Host feeding patterns of Connecticut mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg 26 : 547–552.
  41. Mitchell CJ, Morris CD, Smith GC, Karabatsos N, Vanlandingham D, Cody E, 1996. Arboviruses associated with mosquitoes from nine Florida counties during 1993. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 : 255–262.
  42. Sardelis MR, Dohm DJ, Pagac B, Andre RG, Turell MJ, 2002. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 39 : 480–484.
  43. Ortiz DI, Wozniak A, Tolson MW, Turner PE, Vaughan DR, 2003. Isolation of EEE virus from Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culiseta melanura in coastal South Carolina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 19 : 33–38.
  44. Howard JJ, Grayson MA, White DJ, Oliver J, 1996. Evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in central New York State. J Med Entomol 33 : 421–432.
  45. Ortiz DI, Wozniak A, Tolson MW, Turner PE, 2005. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5 : 20–32.
  46. Srihongse S, Grayson MA, Morris CD, Deibel R, Duncan CS, 1978. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate New York: studies of a 1976 epizootic by a modified serologic technique, hemagglutination reduction, for rapid detection of virus infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27 : 1240–1245.
  47. Weathersbee A, Meisch MV, 1990. Dispersal of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Arkansas ricelands. Environ Entomol 19 : 961–965.
  48. Edman JD, Bidlingmayer WL, 1969. Flight capacity of blood engorged mosquitoes. Mosq News 29 : 386–392.
  49. Morris CD, Larson VL, Lounibos LP, 1991. Measuring mosquito dispersal for control programs. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 : 608–615.
  50. Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Sardelis MR, Oguinn ML, Andreadis TG, Blow JA, 2005. An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus. J Med Entomol 42 : 57–62.
  51. Carpenter SJ, LaCasse WJ, 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Jul 2008
  • Accepted : 26 Feb 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error