Volume 81, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


This study attempted to evaluate the transmission dynamics of in four indigenous communities of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM), Colombia. Low-stringency single primer-polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) of the minicircles and Southern blot analyses were used to characterize samples from patients, vectors, and reservoirs in these communities. The LSSP-PCR profiles revealed a high genetic variability but with similarities among the parasites present in the samples of vectors, patients, and reservoirs of the same and different communities. Cluster and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) analyses of data derived from LSSP-PCR and Southern blot suggest a gene flux among populations of circulating in patients, vectors, and reservoirs. The results support the idea that the domestic and wild transmission cycles overlap in the SNSM, with as the main vector and playing an important role in the transmission of Chagas disease in this zone, making the vector control strategy by spraying unsuccessful.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Moncayo A, 2003. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends alter the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the southern cone countries. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 : 577–591. [Google Scholar]
  2. Restrepo M, Restrepo BN, Salazar CL, Parra GJ, 1999. Informe final de la primera fase del Proyecto Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Enfermedad de Chagas y la Cardiopatía Infantil. Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical: Antioquia, Córdoba y Bolívar. Curso taller sobre control de tripanosomiasis Americana y leishmaniosis. Universidad de los Andes Bogotá: Eds. Corcas Ltda., 87–93.
  3. Parra GJ, Restrepo M, Restrepo BN, Dominguez J, 2004. Estudio de tripanosomiasis americana en dos poblados indígenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Revista CES Medicina 18 : 43–50. [Google Scholar]
  4. Agudelo LA, Dib JC, Rojas W, Triana O, 2005. Epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas en una comunidad indígena de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) Colombia. Biomedica (Bogota) 25 : 113. [Google Scholar]
  5. Dib JC, Chacón R, Cuervo A, Mojica MT, Restrepo M, Parra G, Triana O, 2005a. Comparación de la epidemiología de la enfermedad de Chagas en tres regiones ecológicas del Caribe colombiano: implicaciones para el control. Biomedica (Bogota) 25 : 112. [Google Scholar]
  6. Dib JC, Agudelo L, Velez I, 2000. Dispersion and Distribution of Triatomines species in the Indian Communities from the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. XVth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria. Cartagena, Colombia, p 84.
  7. Dib JC, Restrepo M, Parra G, Tibayrenc M, Barnabe C, Triana O, 2005b. Definición de dos poblaciones Trypanosoma cruzi I en el norte de Colombia mediante análisis de RAPD y el gen de la proteína flagelar. Biomedica (Bogota) 25 : 207–208. [Google Scholar]
  8. Britto C, Cardoso MA, Ravel C, Santoro A, Borges-Pereira J, Coura JR, Morel CM, Wincker P, 1995. Trypanosoma cruzi: parasite detection and strain discrimination in chronic chagasic patients from northeastern Brazil using PCR amplification of kinetoplast DNA and nonradioactive hybridization. Exp Parasitol 81 : 462–471. [Google Scholar]
  9. Breniere SF, Bosseno MF, Telleria J, Bastrenta B, Yacsik N, Noireau F, Alcazar JL, Barnabe C, 1998. Different behavior of two Trypanosoma cruzi major clones: transmission and circulation in young Bolivian patients. Exp Parasitol 89 : 285–295. [Google Scholar]
  10. Vago AR, Macedo A, Oliveira R, Andrade LO, Chiari E, Galvao C, Reis D, Pereira M, Simpson A, Tostes S, Pena S, 1996. Kinetoplast DNA signatures of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks obtained directly from infected tissues. Am J Pathol 149 : 2153–2159. [Google Scholar]
  11. Vago AR, Andrade LO, Leite AA, Reis D, Macedo AM, Adad SJ, Tostes S, Moreira M, Filho GB, Pena S, 2000. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi directly from tissues of patients with chronic Chagas disease. Am J Pathol 156 : 1805–1809. [Google Scholar]
  12. Salazar A, Schijman AG, Triana O, 2006. High variability of Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I stocks as revealed by low-stringency single primer-PCR minicircle signatures. Acta Trop 100 : 110–118. [Google Scholar]
  13. Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J, 1982. Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. New York: Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Harbor Laboratory.
  14. Sturm NR, Degrave W, Morel C, Simpson L, 1989. Sensitive detection and schizodeme classification of Trypanosoma cruzi cells by amplification of kinetoplast minicircle DNA sequences: use in diagnosis of Chagas’ disease. Mol Biochem Parasitol 33 : 205–214. [Google Scholar]
  15. Virreira M, Torrico F, Truyens C, Vega AC, Solano M, Carlier Y, 2003. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction methods for reliable and easy detection of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 574–582. [Google Scholar]
  16. Breniere SF, Bosseno MF, Telleria J, Carrasco R, Vargas F, Yaksic N, Noireau F, 1995. Field application of polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and strain typing of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivian triatomines. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 : 179–184. [Google Scholar]
  17. Solari A, Campillay R, Ortiz S, Wallace A, 2001. Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes circulating in Chilean chagasic patients. Exp Parasitol 97 : 226–233. [Google Scholar]
  18. Veas F, Brenière SF, Cuny G, Brengues C, Solari A, Tibayrenc M, 1991. General procedure to construct highly specific kDNA probes for clones of Trypanosoma cruzi for sensitive detection by polymerase chain reaction. Cell Mol Biol 37 : 73–84. [Google Scholar]
  19. Swofford DL, 2002. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  20. Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM, 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplo-types: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131 : 479–491. [Google Scholar]
  21. Peakall R, Smouse PE, 2006. GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6 : 288–295. [Google Scholar]
  22. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ, 1995. Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. Third edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 887.
  23. Saravia NG, Holguin AF, Cibulskis RE, D’Alessandro A, 1987. Divergent isoenzime profiles of sylvatic and domiciliary Trypanosoma cruzi in the eastern plains, Piedmont, and highlands of Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36 : 59–69. [Google Scholar]
  24. Márquez E, Arcos-Burgos M, Triana O, Moreno J, Jaramillo N, 1998. Clonal population structure of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi. J Parasitol 84 : 1143–1149. [Google Scholar]
  25. Montilla M, Guhl F, Jaramillo C, Nicholls S, Barnabe C, Bosseno MF, Breniere SF, 2002. Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 394–400. [Google Scholar]
  26. Cuervo P, Cupolillo E, Segura I, Saravia N, Fernandes O, 2002. Genetic diversity of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi isolates revealed by the ribosomal DNA. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97 : 877–880. [Google Scholar]
  27. Triana O, Jaramillo N, Moreno J, 1999. A genetic variability of seven Colombian populations of Trypanosoma cruzi and three of Trypanosoma rangeli. Biol Res 32 : 1–10. [Google Scholar]
  28. Triana O, Ortiz S, Dujardin JC, Solari A, 2006. Trypanosoma cruzi: variability of stocks from Colombia determined by molecular karyotype and minicircle Southern blot analysis. Exp Parasitol 113 : 62–66. [Google Scholar]
  29. Zafra G, Mantilla JC, Valadares HM, Macedo AM, González CI, 2008. Evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi II infection in Colombian chagasic patients. Parasitol Res 103 : 731–734. [Google Scholar]
  30. Guhl F, Aguilera G, Pinto N, Vergara D, 2007. Actualización de la distribución geográfica y ecoepidemiología de la fauna de triatominos (Reduviidae: Triatominae) en Colombia. Biomedica (Bogota) 27 : 143–162. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gürtler RE, Cecere CLA, Cardinal V, Kitron U, Cohen JE, 2007. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina. Parasitology 134 : 69–82. [Google Scholar]
  32. Herrera C, Bargues MD, Fajardo A, Montilla M, Triana O, Vallejo G, Guhl F, 2007. Identifying four Trypanosoma cruzi I isolate haplotypes from different geographic regions in Colombia. Infect Genet Evol 7 : 535–539. [Google Scholar]
  33. Falla A, Herrera C, Fajardo A, Montilla M, Vallejo G, Guhl F, 2008. Haplotype identification within Trypanosoma cruzi I in Colombia isolates from several reservoirs, vectors and humans. Acta Trop 110 : 15–21. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Aug 2008
  • Accepted : 24 Mar 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error