Volume 81, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by disseminated lesions and the absence of a specific cellular immune response. Here, the immunochemotherapy outcome of a patient with DCL from Amazonian Brazil infected with () is presented. After several unsuccessful chemotherapy treatment regimens and many relapses, a monthly immunotherapy scheme of PH8 plus () M2903 monovalent vaccines associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was established, one round of which also included an M2903 vaccine associated with intermittent antimonial treatment. Temporary healing of all lesions was achieved, although skin tests were negative and interferon γ was not detected in mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with antigens. The frequencies of CD16 CD56 NK cells (~2×) and CD14 CD16 proinflammatory monocytes (~8×) increased in peripheral blood, and CD56 lymphocytes were found infiltrating the lesions. An association between the increase of the frequency of innate immune system cells and the healing of lesions is shown, suggesting that this protocol of immunotherapy reduced the parasite load and activated NK cells and monocytes.


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  • Received : 17 Aug 2008
  • Accepted : 23 May 2009

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