Volume 81, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We report in Darien Province in eastern Panama. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the single copy nuclear gene and sequence comparisons confirmed the presence of 66 specimens of the northern lineage of . The parsimony network depicted 5 haplotypes in 40 specimens of , which connected through 7–8 mutational steps with sequences from Central and South America. Furthermore, the presence of haplotypes in Biroquera, Darien Province identical to those previously published from northern Colombia suggests that Panamanian samples originated in Colombia. Results of neutrality tests ( and Fu’s ) were not significant and the mismatch distribution was multimodal and did not fit the model of sudden population growth. These findings may indicate a long and stable presence of in eastern Panama.


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  • Received : 13 Nov 2008
  • Accepted : 11 Feb 2009

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