Volume 81, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Pupal surveys of (L.) are useful indicators of risk for dengue transmission, although sample sizes for reliable estimations can be large. This study explores two methods for making pupal surveys more practical yet reliable and used data from 10 pupal surveys conducted in Puerto Rico during 2004–2008. The number of pupae per person for each sampling followed a negative binomial distribution, thus showing aggregation. One method found a common aggregation parameter () for the negative binomial distribution, a finding that enabled the application of a sequential sampling method requiring few samples to determine whether the number of pupae/person was above a vector density threshold for dengue transmission. A second approach used the finding that the mean number of pupae/person is correlated with the proportion of pupa-infested households and calculated equivalent threshold proportions of pupa-positive households. A sequential sampling program was also developed for this method to determine whether observed proportions of infested households were above threshold levels. These methods can be used to validate entomological thresholds for dengue transmission.


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  • Received : 26 Nov 2008
  • Accepted : 25 Mar 2009

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