Volume 80, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The antimalarial susceptibility of ring stage (> 80%) from the Republic of Korea, where long incubation–period strains are prevalent, was evaluated using the schizont maturation inhibition technique. During 2005–2007, susceptibility to seven antimalarial drugs was evaluated with 24 fresh isolates. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 50% inhibition concentration (IC) were quinine 60 (54–75) ng/mL, chloroquine 39 (22–282) ng/mL, piperaquine 27 (17–58) ng/mL, mefloquine 39 (35–67) ng/mL, pyrimethamine 138 (89–280) ng/mL, artesunate 0.6 (0.5–0.8) ng/mL, and primaquine 122 (98–232) ng/mL. Positive correlations were found between quinine and mefloquine (r = 0.6, = 0.004), piperaquine and chloroquine (r = 0.6, = 0.008), and piperaquine and primaquine IC values (r = 0.5, = 0.01). Compared with in Thailand, in the Republic of Korea was more sensitive to quinine and mefloquine, but equally sensitive to chloroquine and artesunate.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 1979. Synopsis of the world’s malaria situation. Wkly Epidemiol 56 : 145–149. [Google Scholar]
  2. Chai JY, 1999. Re-emerging Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 37 : 129–143. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ree HI, 2000. Unstable vivax malaria in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 38 : 119–138. [Google Scholar]
  4. Frieghner BH, Park HI, Novaskoski WL, Kelsey LL, Strickmann D, 1998. Reemergence of P. vivax in the Republic of Korea. Emerg Infect Dis 4 : 295–297. [Google Scholar]
  5. Han ET, Lee DH, Park KD, Seok WS, Kim YS, Tsuboi T, Shin EH, Chai JY, 2006. Reemerging vivax malaria: changing patterns of annual incidence and control programs in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 44 : 285–294. [Google Scholar]
  6. Hankey DD, Jones R Jr, Coatney GR, Alving AS, Coker WG, Garrison PL, Donovan WN, 1953. Korean vivax malaria. I. Natural history and response to chloroquine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2 : 958–969. [Google Scholar]
  7. Garnham PC, Bray RS, Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Draper CC, Killick-Kendrick R, Sergiev PG, Tiburskaja NA, Shute PG, Maryon M, 1975. A strain of Plasmodium vivax characterized by prolonged incubation: morphological and biological characteristics. Bull World Health Organ 52 : 21–32. [Google Scholar]
  8. Shute PG, Lupascu G, Branzei P, Maryon M, Constantinescu P, Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Draper CC, Killick-Kendrick R, Garnham PC, 1977. A strain of Plasmodium vivax characterized by prolonged incubation: the effect of numbers of sporozoites on the length of the prepatent period. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70 : 474–481. [Google Scholar]
  9. Nosten F, ter Kuile F, Maelankirri L, Decludt B, White NJ, 1991. Malaria during pregnancy in an area of unstable endemicity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85 : 424–429. [Google Scholar]
  10. Nosten F, McGready R, Simpson J, Thwai KL, Balkan S, Cho L, Hkirijareon L, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, 1999. Effects of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnanacy. Lancet 14 : 546–549. [Google Scholar]
  11. Schuurkamp G, Spicer PE, Kereu RK, Bulungol PK, 1992. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 121–122. [Google Scholar]
  12. Marfurt J, Müeller I, Sie A, Maku P, Goroti M, Reeder JC, Beck HP, Genton B, 2007. Low efficacy of amodiaquine or chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 : 947–954. [Google Scholar]
  13. Baird JK, Basri, Purnomo, Bang MJ, Subbianto B, Patchen LC, Hoffmann SL, 1991. Resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 : 547–555. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sumawinata IW, Bernadeta, Leksana B, Sutamihardja A, Purnomo, Subianto B, Sekartuti, Fryauff DJ, Baird JK, 2003. Very high risk of therapeutic failure with chloroquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in Indonesian Papua. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 : 416–420. [Google Scholar]
  15. Tjitra E, Anstey NM, Sugiarto P, Warikar N, Kenangalem E, Karyana M, Lampah DA, Price RN, 2008. Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Med 17 : 128. [Google Scholar]
  16. Phillips EJ, Keystone JS, Kain KC, 1996. Failure of combined chloroquine and high-dose primaquine therapy for Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in Guyana, South America. Clin Infect Dis 23 : 1171–1173. [Google Scholar]
  17. Soto J, Toledo J, Gutierrz P, Luzz M, Linas N, Cedeno N, Dunne M, Berman J, 2001. Plasmodium vivax clinically resistant to chloroquine in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65 : 90–93. [Google Scholar]
  18. Dua VK, Kar PK, Sharma VP, 1996. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax malaria in India. Trop Med Int Health 1 : 816–819. [Google Scholar]
  19. Than M, Kyaw MP, Soe AY, Gyi KK, Sabai M, Oo M, 1995. Development of resistance to chloroquine by P. vivax in Myanmar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 : 307–308. [Google Scholar]
  20. Guthmann JP, Pittet A, Lesage A, Imwong M, Lindegardh N, Min Lwin M, Zaw T, Annerberg A, de Radiguès X, Nosten F, 2008. Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in Dawei, southern Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health 13 : 91–98. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hasugian AR, Purba HL, Kenangalem E, Wuwung RM, Ebsworth EP, Maristela R, Penttinen PM, Laihad F, Anstey NM, Tjitra E, Price RN, 2007. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artesunate-amodiaquine: superior efficacy and postreatment prophylaxis against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Clin Infect Dis 44 : 1067–1074. [Google Scholar]
  22. Chotivanich K, Silamut K, Udomsangpetch R, Stepnewski K, Pukrittayakamee S, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, 2001. Ex-vivo short-term culture and developmental assessment of Plasmodium vivax. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 : 677–680. [Google Scholar]
  23. Simpson J, Silamut K, Chotivanich K, Pukrittayakamee S, White NJ, 1999. Red cell selectivity in malaria: a study of multiple infected erythrocytes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 165–168. [Google Scholar]
  24. Kimura M, Kaneko O, Qing L, Mian Z., Kawamoto F, Wataya Y, Otani S, Yamaguchi Y, Tanabe K, 1997. Identification of the four species of human PCR diagnosis for four human malaria parasites. The Toyota Foundation Mini-Symposium on Malaria. Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
  25. Chotivanich K, Udomsangpetch R, Chierakul W, Newton P, Ruangweerayuth R, Pukrittayakamee, Looaresuwan S, White NJ, 2004. In vitro efficacy of antimalarial drugs againt P. vivax on the western border of Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70 : 395–397. [Google Scholar]
  26. Yeom JS, Ryu SH, Oh S, Lee WJ, Kim TS, Kim KH, Kim YA, Ahn SY, Cha JE, Park JW, 2005. Status of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea during 2001–2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 604–608. [Google Scholar]
  27. Alving AS, Hankey DD, Castney GR, Jones R Jr, Coker WG, Garrison PL, Donovan WN, 1953. Korean vivax malaria II. Curative treatment with pamaquine and primaquine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2 : 970–976. [Google Scholar]
  28. Kim C, Shin DC, Yong TS, Oh DK, Kim RK, Park K, Suh IL, 2006. Chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics of re-emergent P. vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea. Bull World Health Organ 84 : 827–834. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Sep 2008
  • Accepted : 11 Feb 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error