1921
Volume 80, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Entomologic monitoring of filarial infections, xenomonitoring, may have advantages in certain epidemiologic situations to assess the presence of infections in humans. Hemalum staining and dissection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared to determine the filarial infection status of () mosquitoes in American Samoa. The overall prevalences of and infections in were, respectively, 0.16% and 1.06% by dissection and 0.69% and 1.77% by PCR. Human filarial worm DNA rates in and were 1.16% and 0.38%, respectively. The results suggest that transmission to humans may be continuing at low levels in some villages despite recent completion of 5 years of mass drug administration. PCR testing of mosquitoes collected using the BG-Sentinel traps represents a promising alternative to landing catches for assessing the transmission of filariasis in areas where and related species are the primary vectors.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.774
2009-05-01
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/80/5/0800774.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.774&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Michael E, Bundy DA, Grenfell BT, 1996. Re-assessing the global prevalence and distribution of lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology 112 : 409–428.
  2. Belkin JH, 1962. The Mosquitoes of the South Pacific. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  3. Ramalingam S, Belkin JN, 1964. Vectors of sub-periodic Bancroftian filariasis in the Samoa-Tonga area. Nature 201 : 105–106.
  4. Ramalingam S, 1968. The epidemiology of filarial transmission in Samoa and Tonga. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 62 : 305–324.
  5. Samarawickrema WA, Kimura E, Sones F, Paulson GS, Cummings RF, 1992. Natural infections of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis and Aedes (Finlaya) samoanus and their implication in human health in Samoa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 187–188.
  6. Ichimori K, 2001. Entomology of the filariasis control programme in Samoa, Aedes polynesiensis and Ae. samoanus. Med Entomol Zool 52 : 11–21.
  7. Esterre P, Plichart C, Sechan Y, Nguyen NL, 2001. The impact of 34 years of massive DEC chemotherapy on Wuchereria bancrofti infection and transmission: the Maupiti cohort. Trop Med Int Health 6 : 190–195.
  8. Pichon G, 2002. Limitation and facilitation in the vectors and other aspects of the dynamics of filarial transmission: the need for vector control against Anopheles-transmitted filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S143–S152.
  9. Burkot TR, Taleo G, Toeaso V, Ichimori K, 2002. Progress towards, and challenges for, the elimination of filariasis from Pacific-island communities. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 (Suppl 2): S61–S69.
  10. Liang JL, King JD, Ichimori K, Handzel T, Pa’au M, Lammie PJ, 2008. Impact of five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in American Samoa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78 : 924–928.
  11. Weil GJ, Ramzy RMR, 2007. Diagnostic tools for filariasis elimination programs. Trends Parasitol 23 : 78–82.
  12. Njenga SM, Wamae CN, Njomo DW, Mwandawiro CS, Molyneux DH, 2008. Impact of two rounds of mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti infection and the sensitivity of immunochromatographic test in Malindi, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102 : 1017–1024.
  13. Lizotte MR, Supali T, Partono F, Williams SA, 1994. A polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Brugia malayi in blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 314–321.
  14. Zhong M, McCarthy J, Bierwert L, Lizotte Waniewski M, Chanteau S, Nutman TB, Ottesen EA, Williams SA, 1996. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 357–363.
  15. Chanteau S, Luquiaud P, Failloux AB, Williams SA, 1994. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti larvae in pools of mosquitoes by the polymerase chain reaction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 665–666.
  16. Nicolas L, Luquiaud P, Lardeux F, Mercer DR, 1996. Polymerase chain reaction assay to determine infection of Aedes polynesiensis by Wuchereria bancrofti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 : 136–139.
  17. Bockarie MJ, Fischer P, Williams SA, Zimmerman PA, Griffin L, Alpers MP, Kazura JW, 2000. Application of a polymerase chain reaction-ELISA to detect Wuchereria bancrofti in pools of wild-caught Anopheles punctulatus in a filariasis control area in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 363–367.
  18. Goodman DS, Orelus JN, Roberts JM, Lammie PJ, Streit TG, 2003. PCR and mosquito dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection levels following mass treatment. Filaria J 2 : 11.
  19. Hoti SLPK, Vasuki V, Lizotte MW, Hariths VR, Sushma N, Gunasekaran K, Ramaiah KD, Vanamail P, Mariappan T, Williams SA, 2002. Evaluation of Ssp I polymerase chain reaction assay in the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus and its application in the transmission studies of lymphatic filariasis. J Appl Ent 126 : 417–421.
  20. Vasuki V, Hoti SL, Sadanandane C, Jambulingam P, 2003. A simple and rapid DNA extraction method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in the vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus by SspI PCR assay. Acta Trop 86 : 109–114.
  21. Ramzy RM, El Setouhy M, Helmy H, Ahmed ES, Abd Elaziz KM, Farid HA, Shannon WD, Weil GJ, 2006. Effect of yearly mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: a comprehensive assessment. Lancet 367 : 992–999.
  22. Ramzy RMR, Farid HA, Kamal IH, Ibrahim GH, Morsy ZS, Faris R, Weil GJ, Williams SA, Gad AM, 1997. A polymerase chain reaction-based assay for detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood and Culex pipiens. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 : 156–160.
  23. Plichart C, Sechan Y, Davies N, Legrand A-M, 2006. PCR and dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes in French Polynesia. Filaria J 5 : 2.
  24. Hoti SL, Vasuki V, Lizotte MW, Patra KP, Ravi G, Vanamail P, Manonmani A, Sabesan S, Krishnamoorthy K, Williams SA, 2001. Detection of Brugia malayi in laboratory and wild-caught Mansonioides mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) using Hha IPCR assay. Bull Entomol Res 91 : 87–92.
  25. Farid HA, Morsy ZS, Helmy H, Ramzy RMR, El Setouhy M, Weil GJ, 2007. A critical appraisal of molecular xenomonitoring as a tool for assessing progress toward elimination of lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 : 593–600.
  26. Samarawickrema WA, Kimura E, Spears GF, Penaia L, Sone F, Paulson GS, Cummings RF, 1987. Distribution of vectors, transmission indices and microfilaria rates of subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti in relation to village ecotypes in Samoa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81 : 129–135.
  27. Schmaedick MA, Ball TS, Burkot TR, Gurr NE, 2008. Evaluation of three traps for sampling Aedes polynesiensis and other mosquito species in American Samoa. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24 : 319–322.
  28. Huang Y-M, 1977. The mosquitoes of Polynesia with a pictorial key to some species associated with filariasis and/or dengue fever. Mosquito Systematics 9 : 298–322.
  29. Ramalingam S, 1976. An annotated checklist and keys to the mosquitoes of Samoa and Tonga. Mosquito Systematics 8 : 298–318.
  30. Nelson GS, 1958. Staining of filarial larvae in insects before dissection. Bull World Health Organ 19 : 204.
  31. Culpepper J, Grieve RB, Friedman L, Mika-Grieve M, Frank GR, Dale B, 1992. Molecular characterization of a Dirofilaria immitis cDNA encoding a highly immunoreactive antigen. Mol Biochem Parasitol 54 : 51–62.
  32. Poole CB, Grandea AG 3rd, Maina CV, Jenkins RE, Selkirk ME, McReynolds LA, 1992. Cloning of a cuticular antigen that contains multiple tandem repeats from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89 : 5986–5990.
  33. Katholi CR, Toe L, Merriweather A, Unnasch TR, 1995. Determining the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in vector populations by polymerase chain reaction screening of pools of black flies. J Infect Dis 172 : 1414–1417.
  34. WHO, 2006. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81 : 221–232.
  35. Williams SA, Laney SJ, Bierwert LA, Saunders LJ, Boakye DA, Fischer P, Goodman D, Helmy H, Hoti SL, Vasuki V, Lammie PJ, Plichart C, Ramzy RMR, Ottesen EA, 2002. Development and standardization of a rapid, PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes, for xenomonitoring the human prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 : S41–S46.
  36. Samarawickerma WA, Sone F, Cummings RF, 1987. Pa’au M, Seasonal abundance, diel biting activity and paraity of Aedes polynesiensis marks and A. samoanus (Grunberg) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Samoa. Bull Entomol Res 77 : 191–200.
  37. Mladonicky J, King J, Liang JL, Chambers EW, Pa’au M, Schmaedick MA, Burkot TR, Bradley M, Lammie PJ, 2009. Assessing transmission of lymphatic filariasis using parasitologic, serologic and entomologic tools following mass drug administration in American Samoa. Am J Trop Med and Hyg 80 : 769–773.
  38. Dissanaike AS, 1979. Zoonotic aspects of filarial infections in man. Bull World Health Organ 57 : 349–357.
  39. Theis JH, 2005. Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States. Vet Parasitol 133 : 157–180.
  40. Krockel U, Rose A, Eiras AE, Geier M, 2006. New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever mosquitoes: comparison of trap catches with human landing rates in an urban environment. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22 : 229–238.
  41. Maciel-de-Freitas R, Eiras AE, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 2006. Field evaluation of effectiveness of the BG-Sentinel, a new trap for capturing adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101 : 321–325.
  42. Williams CR, Long SA, Russell RC, Ritchie SA, 2006. Field efficacy of the BG-Sentinel compared with CDC Backpack Aspirators and CO2-baited EVS traps for collection of adult Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22 : 296–300.
  43. Williams CR, Long SA, Webb CE, Bitzhenner M, Geier M, Russell RC, Ritchie SA, 2007. Aedes aegypti population sampling using BG-Sentinel traps in north Queensland Australia: statistical considerations for trap deployment and sampling strategy. J Med Entomol 44 : 345–350.
  44. Jachowski LA, 1954. Filariasis in American Samoa. Am J Hyg 60 : 186–203.
  45. Lee DJ, Hicks MM, Griffiths M, Debenham ML, Bryan JH, Russell RC, Geary M, Marks EN, 1987. The Culicidae of the Australasian Region. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth Department of Health.
  46. Fischer P, Erickson SM, Fischer K, Fuchs JF, Rao RU, Christensen BM, Weil GJ, 2007. Persistence of Brugia malayi DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for xenomonitoring and transmission monitoring of lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 : 502–507.
  47. Laney SJ, Buttaro CJ, Visconti S, Pilotte N, Ramzy RM, Weil GJ, Williams SA, 2008. A Reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2 : e251.
  48. Burkot TR, Handzel T, Schmaedick MA, Tufa J, Roberts JM, Graves PM, 2007. Productivity of natural and artificial containers for Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes aegypti in four American Samoan villages. Med Vet Entomol 21 : 22–29.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.774
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.774
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Aug 2008
  • Accepted : 04 Dec 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error