Volume 80, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Monomolecular films are used for mosquito control because of their asphyxiating effect on larvae and pupae. Compared with other films, Aquatain mosquito formulation (AMF™) has an improved spreading ability and flexibility on a water surface. In the laboratory, AMF™ showed larvicidal, pupicidal, and oviposition deterrent effects against the malaria vectors and . At a dose of 1 mL/m, the median lethal time to death for late larval instars was 3.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.76–3.25) and 0.98 (95% CI = 0.75–1.20) days for and respectively. None of the treated larvae pupated. Pupal mortality reached 100% within two hours for both species. AMF™ repelled gravid females from ovipositing in treated oviposition cups. Without the choice of an untreated cup, the lowered water surface tension caused most females to drown while attempting to oviposit. This physical control method has the potential to become a safe, cost-effective, and resistance-proof malaria vector control tool.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Batra CP, Mittal PK, Adak T, Subbarao SK, 2006. Efficacy of Agnique ®; MMF monomolecular surface film against Anopheles stephensi breeding in urban habitats in India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22 : 426–432.
  2. Das PK, Tyagi BK, Somachari N, Venkatesan V, 1986. Efficacy of Arosurf a monomolecular surface film in controlling Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Indian J Med Res 83 : 271–276.
  3. Levy R, Chizzonite JJ, Garrett WD, Miller TW, 1982. Efficacy of the organic-surface film isostearyl alcohol containing 2 oxyethylene groups for control of Culex and Psorophora mosquitos—laboratory and field studies. Mosq News 42 : 1–11.
  4. Levy R, Putnam JL, Miller TW Jr, 1986. Laboratory evaluations of formulations of Arosurf MSF and Bacillus sphaericus against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 : 233–236.
  5. Nayar JK, Ali A, 2003. A review of monomolecular surface films as larvicides and pupicides of mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol 28 : 190–199.
  6. Service M, 2008. Medical Entomology for Students. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  7. Killeen GF, 2003. Following in Soper’s footsteps: northeast Brazil 63 years after eradication of Anopheles gambiae. Lancet Infect Dis 3 : 663–666.
  8. Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BGJ, 2002. Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria control in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 2 : 618–627.
  9. Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Knols BGJ, 2002. Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malar J 1 : 8.
  10. Macdonald G, 1957. The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  11. White GB, 1999. Malaria prevention by vector control: effectiveness of insecticidal methods. Parassitologia 41 : 385–387.
  12. Karanja DM, Githeko AK, Vulule JM, 1994. Small-scale field evaluation of the monomolecular surface film ‘Arosurf MSF’ against Anopheles arabiensis Patton. Acta Trop 56 : 365–369.
  13. Dolo G, Briët OJT, Dao A, Traoré SF, Bouaré M, Sogoba N, Niaré O, Bagayogo M, Sangaré D, Teuscher T, Touré YT, 2004. Malaria transmission in relation to rice cultivation in the irrigated Sahel of Mali. Acta Trop 89 : 147–159.
  14. Keiser J, De Castro MC, Maltese MF, Bos R, Tanner M, Singer BH, Utzinger J, 2005. Effect of irrigation and large dams on the burden of malaria on a global and regional scale. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 : 392–406.
  15. Ng’ang’a P, Shililu JI, Jayasinghe G, Kimani V, Kabutha C, Kabuage L, Kabiru E, Githure J, Mutero C, 2008. Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control. Malar J 7 : 146.
  16. Ijumba JN, Lindsay SW, 2001. Impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa: paddies paradox. Med Vet Entomol 15 : 1–11.
  17. Ultimate Agri-products, 2007. Aquatain Independent Trial Results. Available at: http://www.aquatain.com.au. Accessed November 20, 2008.
  18. Ultimate Agri-Products. Available at: http://www.aquatain.com.au.
  19. UltimateAgri-products, 2007. Aquatain Independent Water Quality Report. Available at: http://www.aquatain.com.au. Accessed November 20, 2008.
  20. International NSF, 2008. Certificate for Use on Drinking Water in USA. Available at: http://www.nsf.org/Certified/PwsChemicals/Listings.asp?Company=4Q360&Standard=060&. Accessed November 20, 2008.
  21. Corbet SA, Tiley C, Moorhouse T, Giam C, Pursglove S, Raby J, Rich M, 2000. Surface films as mosquito larvicides: partitioning the mode of action. Entomol Exp Appl 94 : 295–307.
  22. Senthil NS, 2007. The use of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) oil (leaf extract) as a natural larvicidal agent against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Bioresour Technol 98 : 1856–1860.
  23. World Health Organization, 1975. Manual of Practical Entomology in Malaria, Part II. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  24. Abbott WS, 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18 : 265–267.
  25. Finney DJ, 1971. Probit Analysis. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  26. Cox DR, 1972. Regression models and life tables (with discussion). J R Stat Soc B 34 : 187–220.
  27. Clements AN, 1992. The Biology of Mosquitoes. Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. London: Chapman and Hall.
  28. Clements AN, 1999. The Biology of Mosquitoes. Sensory Reception and Behavior. New York: CABI Publishing.
  29. Fillinger U, Kannady K, William G, Vanek M, Dongus S, Nyika D, Geissbuhler Y, Chaki P, Govella N, Mathenge E, Singer B, Mshinda H, Lindsay S, Tanner M, Mtasiwa D, de Castro M, Killeen G, 2008. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malar J 7 : 20.
  30. Mutuku FM, Alaii JA, Bayoh MN, Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Walker ED, Kabiru E, Hawley WA, 2006. Distribution, description, and local knowledge of larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in a village in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 44–53.
  31. Fillinger U, Lindsay SW, 2006. Suppression of exposure to malaria vectors by an order of magnitude using microbial larvicides in rural Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 11 : 1629–1642.
  32. Couch TL, 2000. Industrial fermentation and formulation of entomopathogenic bacteria. Entomopathogenic Bacteria: From Laboratory to Field Application. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 297–316.
  33. Powell KA, Jutsum AR, 1993. Technical and commercial aspects of biocontrol products. Pestic Sci 37 : 315–321.
  34. Ultimate Agri-Products, 2008. Evaluation of the Stability of the Physical Properties of Aquatain AMF Mosquito Control Product following Accelerated Storage Stability. Agrisearch Analytical Pty Ltd. Available at: http://www.aquatain.com.au. Accessed November 20, 2008.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 20 Nov 2008
  • Accepted : 13 Feb 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error