Volume 80, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To understand the spatial distribution of hantavirus infections across landscapes and its influencing environment factors in Beijing, People’s Republic of China, rodents captured in this region were examined for hantavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1,639 rodents were trapped at 86 randomly selected sites. The overall infection rate for hantavirus was 7.14% in the rodents. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the natural infection rates for hantavirus in rodents were significantly associated with rice agriculture (odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27–30.70), orchards (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–5.96), and moderate elevation (OR = 9.83, 95% CI = 2.22–43.55). A risk map was constructed on the basis of these significant factors to predict extension and transmission of infection with hantavirus in this region.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Luo CW, Chen HX, 2003. Study on the factors influenced epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Chin J Vector Biol Control 14 : 451–454. [Google Scholar]
  2. Liu G, Li C, Hu GW, Li Y, Yao LS, Chen YQ, Ren M, Guan SX, Yu CY, Na BZ, Zhong XD, Sun YX, Li XW, Li DX, 2003. Identification of Puumala like viruses in China. Chin Exp Clin Virol 17 : 55–57. [Google Scholar]
  3. Jiang JF, Zhang WY, Yao K, Wu XM, Zuo SQ, Zhan L, Zhang PH, Cao WC, 2007. A new Hantaan-like virus in rodents (Apodemus peninsulae) from northeastern China. Virus Res 130 : 292–295. [Google Scholar]
  4. Zhang WY, Jiang JF, Yao K, Wu XM, Zuo SQ, Zhan L, Chu CY, Zhao QM, Zhang PH, Yang H, Cao WC, 2007. Identification of Amur like virus in Apodemus peninsulae in China and its molecular characteristics. Chin J Epidemiol 28 : 482–486. [Google Scholar]
  5. Lin HL, Liu QY, Guo JQ, Zhang JB, Wang JF, Chen HX, 2007. Analysis of the geographic distribution of HFRS in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2005. BMC Public Health 7 : 207. [Google Scholar]
  6. Fang LQ, Yan L, Liang S, de Vlas SJ, Feng D, Han XN, Zhao WJ, Xu B, Bian L, Yang H, Gong P, Richardus JH, Cao WC, 2006. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. BMC Infect Dis 6 : 77. [Google Scholar]
  7. Zhang Y, Xiao D, Wang Y, Wang H, Sun L, Tao X, Qu Y, 2004. The epidemic characteristics and preventive measures of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Chin J Epidemiol 25 : 466–469. [Google Scholar]
  8. Zuo SQ, Zhang PH, Jiang JF, Zhan L, Wu XM, Zhao WJ, Wang RM, Tang F, Dun Z, Cao WC, 2008. Seoul virus in patients and rodents from Beijing, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78 : 833–837. [Google Scholar]
  9. Zhang XC, Hu JY, Zhou SL, Guan ZZ, 2001. Study on eidemic sate in Beijing. Chin J Vector Biol Control 12 : 218–221. [Google Scholar]
  10. Jiang JF, Zuo SQ, Zhang WY, Wu XM, Tang F, de Vlas SJ, Zhao WJ, Zhang PH, Dun Z, Wang RM, Cao WC, 2008. Prevalence and genetic diversities of hantaviruses in rodents in Beijing, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78 : 98–105. [Google Scholar]
  11. Richards JA, 1999. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  12. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Data. Available at: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/SELECTION/inputCoord.asp. Accessed August 1, 2008.
  13. Liu JP, Rong WL, Lu HS, 2006. Studies on regional planning of agriculture function in Beijing. Chin J Agri Res Region Plan 27 : 49–54. [Google Scholar]
  14. Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW, 1994. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Third edition. New York: John Wiley.
  15. Bubier JL, Rock BN, Crill PM, 1997. Spectral reflectance measurements of boreal wetland and forest mosses. J Geophys Res Atmos 102 : 29483–29494. [Google Scholar]
  16. Penuelas J, Filella I, 1998. Visible and near-infrared reflectance techniques for diagnosing plant physiological status. Trends Plant Sci 3 : 151–156. [Google Scholar]
  17. Yan L, Fang LQ, Huang HG, Zhang LQ, Feng D, Zhao WJ, Zhang WY, Li XW, Cao WC, 2007. Landscape elements and Hantaan virus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis 3 : 1301–1306. [Google Scholar]
  18. Boone JD, Otteson EW, McGwire KC, Villard P, Rowe JE, St Jeor AC, 1998. Ecology and demographics of hantavirus infections in rodent populations in the Walker river basin of Nevada and California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 445–451. [Google Scholar]
  19. Zhao WJ, 2007. Spatial Analysis of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Beijing, 2004–2006 [dissertation]. Beijing: Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology.
  20. Glass GE, Yates TL, Fine JB, Shields TM, Kendall JB, Hope AG, Parmenter CA, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, Li CS, Patz JA, Mills JN, 2002. Satellite imagery characterizes local animal reservoir populations of Sin Nombre virus in the southwestern United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 26 : 16817–16822. [Google Scholar]
  21. Wang H, Yoshimatsu K, Ebihara H, Ogino M, Araki K, Kariwa H, Wang ZX, Luo ZZ, Li DX, Hang CS, Arikawa J, 2000. Genetic diversity of hantaviruses isolated in China and characterization of novel hantaviruses isolated from Niviventer confucianus and Rattus rattus. Virology 278 : 332–345. [Google Scholar]
  22. Kim EC, Kim IS, Choi Y, Kim SG, Lee J, 1994. Rapid differentiation between Hantaan and Seoul viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis. J Med Virol 43 : 245–248. [Google Scholar]
  23. Glass GE, Cheek JE, Patz JA, Shields TM, Doyle TJ, Thoroughman DA, Hunt DK, Ensore RE, Gage KL, Irland C, Peters CJ, Bryan R, 2000. Using remotely sensed data to identify areas at risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 238–247. [Google Scholar]
  24. King RJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Davies CR, 2004. Predicting geographic variation in cutaneous leishmaniasis, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis 4 : 598–607. [Google Scholar]
  25. Boone JD, McGwire KC, Otteson EW, DeBaca RS, Kuhn EA, Villard P, Brussard PF, Jeor SC, 2000. Remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting Sin Nombre virus infections in deer mice. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 248–258. [Google Scholar]
  26. Guerra M, Walker E, Jones C, Paskewitz S, Cortinas MR, Stancil A, Beck L, Bobo M, Kitron U, 2002. Predicting the risk of Lyme disease: habitat suitability for Ixodes scapularis in the north central United States. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 289–297. [Google Scholar]
  27. Linard C, Tersago K, Leirs H, Lambin EF, 2007. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium. Int J Health Geogr 6 : 55. [Google Scholar]
  28. Shi LY, 2003. Epidemiology. Fifth edition. Beijing: China People’s Health Publishing House, 504–518.
  29. Dobson AP, Hudson PJ, 1995. Microparasites: observed patterns in wild animal population. Grenfell BT, Dobson AP, eds. Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 52–89.
  30. Chen HX, Luo CW, Chen F, Wang XH, Yang JH, Ma LJ, Hu JS, Sun HY, Yao ZH, Qiu JC, 1999. Study and surveillance of HFRS in China. Chin Public Health 15 : 616–623. [Google Scholar]
  31. Bi P, Tong SL, Donald K, Ni JF, 2002. Climatic, reservoir and occupational variables and the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. Int J Epidemiol 31 : 189–193. [Google Scholar]
  32. China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. Available at: http://cdc.cma.gov.cn. Accessed August 1, 2008.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 06 Oct 2008
  • Accepted : 06 Jan 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error