Volume 80, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was made available by The Department of Health since April 1997. As a result, the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among HIV cases rose from 1.90% to 3.82% during 1993 to 1998 and decreased from 3.82% to 0.94% during 1998 to 2006. The incidence rate of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV cases reached its peak in 1998 and then started to reverse, although the next year the TB disease burden (incidence rate: 62.7 cases per 100,000 persons) remained consistently high, and this continued in the following years. The survival rate of TB/HIV co-infection cases was 62.16% during the period 1993–1996 (pre-free HAART era) and increased to 86.60% during the period 1998–2006 ( < 0.0001) (post-free HAART era). Highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased the incidence rate of new TB/HIV co-infection cases among HIV cases and increased the survival rate of TB/HIV co-infection cases.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. WHO-UNAIDS, 2007. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: http://data.unaids.org/pub/EPISlides/2007/2007_epiupdate_en.pdf.
  2. WHO, 2008. Tuberculosis. Global Tuberculosis Control Report 2008. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/.
  3. Narain JP, Lo YR, 2004. Epidemiology of HIV-TB in Asia. Indian J Med Res 120 : 277–289.
  4. Sharma SK, Mohan A, Kadhiravan T, 2005. HIV-TB co-infection: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Indian J Med Res 121 : 550–567.
  5. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC, Dye C, 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med 63 : 1009–1021.
  6. Vermund SH, Yamamoto N, 2007. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in Asia. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 87 (Suppl 1): S18–S25.
  7. Steinbrook R, 2007. Tuberculosis and HIV in India. N Engl J Med 356 : 1198–1199.
  8. WHO, 2008. Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing: WHO Report 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2008/pdf/fullreport.pdf.
  9. Lim HJ, Okwera A, Mayanja-Kizza H, Ellner JJ, Mugerwa RD, Whalen CC, 2006. Effect of tuberculosis preventive therapy on HIV disease progression and survival in HIV-infected adults. HIV Clin Trials 7 : 172–183.
  10. Muga R, Ferreros I, Langohr K, de Olalla PG, Del Romero J, Quintana M, Alastrue I, Belda J, Tor J, Pérez-Hoyos S, Del Amo J; Spanish Multicenter Study Group of Seroconverters (GEMES), 2007. Changes in the incidence of tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-seroconverters before and after the introduction of HAART. AIDS 21 : 2521–2527.
  11. Girardi E, Sabin CA, d’Arminio Monforte A, Hogg B, Phillips AN, Gill MJ, Dabis F, Reiss P, Kirk O, Bernasconi E, Grabar S, Justice A, Staszewski S, Fätkenheuer G, Sterne JA; Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration, 2005. Incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America. Clin Infect Dis 41 : 1772–1782.
  12. Girardi E, Palmieri F, Cingolani A, Ammassari A, Petrosillo N, Gillini L, Zinzi D, De Luca A, Antinori A, Ippolito G, 2001. Changing clinical presentation and survival in HIV-associated tuberculosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 26 : 326–331.
  13. MMWR, 2007. Reported HIV status of tuberculosis patients–United States, 1993–2005. CDC MMWR Weekly 56 : 1103–1106.
  14. Selwyn PA, Hartel D, Lewis VA, Schoenbaum EE, Vermund SH, Klein RS, Walker AT, Friedland GH, 1989. A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with HIV infection. N Engl J Med 320 : 545–550.
  15. Girardi E, Antonucci G, Vanacore P, Libanore M, Errante I, Matteelli A, Ippolito G, Gruppo Italiano di Studio Tubercolosi e AIDS (GISTA), 2000. Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on the risk of tuberculosis among persons with HIV infection. AIDS 14 : 1985–1991.
  16. Jones JL, Hanson DL, Dworkin MS, DeCock KM, 2000. HIV-associated tuberculosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 4 : 1026–1031.
  17. Santoro-Lopes G, de Pinho AM, Harrison LH, Schechter M, 2002. Reduced risk of tuberculosis among Brazilian patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 34 : 543–546.
  18. Badri M, Wilson D, Wood R, 2002. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet 359 : 2059–2064.
  19. Hung CC, Chen MY, Hsiao CF, Hsieh SM, Sheng WH, Chang SC, 2003. Improved outcomes of HIV-1-infected adults with tuberculosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 17 : 2615–2622.
  20. Hung CC, Hsiao CF, Chen MY, Hsieh SM, Chang SY, Sheng WH, Sun HY, Chang SC, 2006. Improved survival of persons with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan. Jpn J Infect Dis 59 : 222–228.
  21. Hogg RS, Yip B, Chan KJ, Wood E, Craib KJ, O’Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS, 2001. Rates of disease progression by baseline CD4 cell count and viral load after initiating triple-drug therapy. JAMA 286 : 2568–2577.
  22. Palella FJ Jr, Deloria-Knoll M, Chmiel JS, Moorman AC, Wood KC, Greenberg AE, Holmberg SD, 2003. HIV outpatient study investigators. Survival benefit of initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons in different CD4+ cell strata. Ann Intern Med 138 : 620–626.
  23. Lew WJ, Lee EG, Bai JY, Kim HJ, Bai GH, Ahn DI, Lee JK, Kim SJ, 2006. An internet-based surveillance system for tuberculosis in Korea. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10 : 1241–1247.
  24. Rolfhamre P, Janson A, Arneborn M, Ekdahl K, 2006. SmiNet-2: description of an internet-based surveillance system for communicable diseases in Sweden. Euro Surveill 11 : 103–107.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Oct 2008
  • Accepted : 14 Dec 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error