1921
Volume 80, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

species were monitored at three proximate sites with historically different West Nile virus (WNV) activities. The site with human WNV transmission (epidemic) had the lowest abundance of the putative bridge vectors, and . The site with horse cases but not human cases (epizootic) had the highest percent composition of , whereas the site with WNV-positive birds only (enzootic) had the highest abundance and percent composition. A total of 29 WNV-positive pools were collected at the enzootic site, 17 at the epidemic site, and 14 at the epizootic site. Published models of human risk using and as the primary bridge vectors did not explain WNV activity at our sites. Other variables, such as additional vector species, environmental components, and socioeconomic factors, need to be examined to explain the observed patterns of WNV epidemic activity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.661
2009-04-01
2017-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/80/4/0800661.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.661&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, Montgomery SP, O’Leary DR, Campbell GL, 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 1167–1173.
  2. Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, Main AJ, 2004. Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999–2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4 : 360–378.
  3. Gould LH, Fikrig E, 2004. West Nile virus: a growing concern? J Clin Invest 113 : 1102–1107.
  4. Kulasekera VL, Kramer L, Nasci RS, Mostashari F, Cherry B, Trock SC, Glaser C, Miller JR, 2001. West Nile virus infection in mosquitoes, birds, horses, and humans, Staten Island, New York, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 722–725.
  5. Kramer LD, Styer LM, Ebel GD, 2008. A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Annu Rev Entomol 53 : 61–81.
  6. Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, 2001. Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 670–674.
  7. Bernard KA, Maffei JG, Jones SA, Kauffman EB, Ebel G, Dupuis AP, Ngo KA, Nicholas DC, Young DM, Shi PY, Kulasekera VL, Eidson M, White DJ, Stone WB, Kramer LD, 2001. West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 679–685.
  8. Sardelis MR, Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, O’Guinn M, 2001. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 1018–1022.
  9. Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Campbell SR, Alleyne EO, Dobson AP, Daszak P, 2005. West Nile virus risk assessment and the bridge vector paradigm. Emerg Infect Dis 11 : 425–429.
  10. Kilpatrick AM, Kramer LD, Jones MJ, Marra PP, Daszak P, 2006. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PLoS Biol 4 : e82.
  11. Diuk-Wasser MA, Brown HE, Andreadis TG, Fish D, 2006. Modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in Connecticut, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6 : 283–295.
  12. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, 2006. Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, USA. J Med Entomol 43 : 1088–1093.
  13. Gingrich JB, Williams GM, 2005. Host-feeding patterns of suspected West Nile virus mosquito vectors in Delaware, 2001–2002. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21 : 194–200.
  14. Kunkel KE, Novak RJ, Lampman RL, Gu W, 2006. Modeling the impact of variable climatic factors on the crossover of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), vectors of West Nile virus in Illinois. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 : 168–173.
  15. Yiannakoulias NW, Svenson LW, 2007. West Nile virus: strategies for predicting municipal-level infection. Ann NY Acad Sci 1102 : 135–148.
  16. Eisen L, Eisen RJ, 2007. Need for improved methods to collect and present spatial epidemiologic data for vectorborne diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 1816–1820.
  17. Bertolotti L, Kitron UD, Walker ED, Ruiz MO, Brawn JD, Loss SR, Hamer GL, Goldberg TL, 2008. Fine-scale genetic variation and evolution of West Nile Virus in a transmission “hot spot” in suburban Chicago, USA. Virology 374 : 381–389.
  18. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, 2008. Spatial modeling of human risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens based on epidemiological versus arthropod vector data. J Med Entomol 45 : 181–192.
  19. Hamer GL, Walker ED, Brawn JD, Loss SR, Ruiz MO, Goldberg TL, Schotthoefer AM, Brown WM, Wheeler E, Kitron UD, 2008. Rapid amplification of West Nile virus: the role of hatch-year birds. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8 : 57–67.
  20. Ruiz MO, Walker ED, Foster ES, Haramis LD, Kitron UD, 2007. Association of West Nile virus illness and urban landscapes in Chicago and Detroit. Int J Health Geogr 6 : 10–20.
  21. Winters AM, Bolling BG, Beaty BJ, Blair CD, Eisen RJ, Meyer AM, Pape WJ, Moore CG, Eisen L, 2008. Combining mosquito vector and human disease data for improved assessment of spatial West Nile virus disease risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78 : 654–665.
  22. Kulldorff M, 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Comm Statist Theory Methods 26 : 1481–1496.
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Epidemic/ Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States: Revised Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&control.htm. Accessed March 11, 2008.
  24. Cornell University Geospatial Information Repository (database on the Internet). Available at: http://cugir.mannlib.cornell.edu. Accessed February 19, 2008.
  25. New York State Geographic Information Systems (database on the Internet). New York State GIS Clearinghouse. Suffolk County Direct Download (2001). Available at: http://www.nysgis.state.ny.us/gateway/mg/2001/Suffolk. Accessed February 19, 2008.
  26. Apperson CS, Harrison BA, Unnasch TR, Hassan HK, Irby WS, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Watson DW, Rueda LM, Engber BR, Nasci RS, 2002. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 39 : 777–785.
  27. Rochlin I, Santoriello MP, Mayer RT, Campbell SR, 2007. Improved high-throughput method for molecular identification of Culex mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23 : 488–491.
  28. Corsaro BG, Munstermann LE, 1984. Identification by electrophoresis of Culex adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in light-trap samples. J Med Entomol 21 : 648–655.
  29. Crabtree MB, Savage HM, Miller BR, 1995. Development of a species-diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for the identification of Culex vectors of St. Louis encephalitis virus based on interspecies variation in ribosomal DNA spacers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 : 105–109.
  30. Harrington LC, Poulson RL, 2008. Considerations for accurate identification of adult Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in field studies. J Med Entomol 45 : 1–8.
  31. Means RG, 1987. Mosquitoes of New York. Part II. Genera of Culicidae other than Aedes occurring in New York. New York State Mus Bull 430b : 1–180.
  32. Lukacik G, Anand M, Shusas EJ, Howard JJ, Oliver J, Chen H, Backenson PB, Kauffman EB, Bernard KA, Kramer LD, White DJ, 2006. West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in New York State, 2000–2004. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22 : 264–271.
  33. Bernard KA, Kramer LD, 2001. West Nile virus activity in the United States, 2001. Viral Immunol 14 : 319–338.
  34. Biggerstaff B, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Software for Mosquito Surveillance . Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/software.htm. Accessed February 19, 2008.
  35. Lawal BH, 2003. Categorical Data Analysis with SAS and SPSS Applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  36. Molaei G, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM, Anderson JF, Vossbrinck CR, 2006. Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis 12 : 468–474.
  37. Moncayo AC, Edman JD, 1999. Toward the incrimination of epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in Massachusetts: abundance of mosquito populations at epidemic foci. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15 : 479–492.
  38. Spielman A, 1999. The role of surveillance in interventions directed against vector-borne disease. Ecosyst Health 5 : 141–145.
  39. Freier JE, 1989. Estimation of vectorial capacity: vector abundance in relation to man. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 14 : 41–46.
  40. Hu W, Tong S, Mengersen K, Oldenburg B, Dale P, 2006. Mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and the transmission of Ross River virus in Brisbane, Australia. J Med Entomol 43 : 375–381.
  41. Ryan PA, Do KA, Kay BH, 1999. Spatial and temporal analysis of Ross River virus disease patterns at Maroochy Shire, Australia: association between human morbidity and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance. J Med Entomol 36 : 515–521.
  42. Ebel GD, Rochlin I, Longacker J, Kramer LD, 2005. Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) relative abundance and vector competence for West Nile Virus. J Med Entomol 42 : 838–843.
  43. Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Farajollahi A, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Benedict M, Anderson M, McMillen L, Unnasch TR, 2004. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4 : 71–82.
  44. Crans WJ, 1964. Continued host preference studies with New Jersey mosquitoes, 1963. Proc NJ Mosq Control Assoc 51 : 50–58.
  45. Means RG, 1968. Host preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Suffolk County, New York. Ann Entomol Soc Am 61 : 116–120.
  46. LeDuc JW, Suyemoto W, Eldridge BF, Saugstad ES, 1972. Ecology of arboviruses in a Maryland freshwater swamp. II. Blood feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors. Am J Epidemiol 96 : 123–128.
  47. Rochlin I, Dempsey ME, Campbell SR, Ninivaggi DV, 2008. Salt marsh as Culex salinarius larval habitat in coastal New York. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24 : 359–367.
  48. Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Sardelis MR, Oguinn ML, Andreadis TG, Blow JA, 2005. An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 42 : 57–62.
  49. Shaman J, Day JF, Stieglitz M, 2005. Drought-induced amplification and epidemic transmission of West Nile virus in southern Florida. J Med Entomol 42 : 134–141.
  50. Rios J, Hacker CS, Hailey CA, Parsons RE, 2006. Demographic and spatial analysis of West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis in Houston, Texas. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22 : 254–263.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.661
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.661
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 May 2008
  • Accepted : 30 Sep 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error