1921
Volume 80, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

In an endemic rural area of southeast Brazil, surveys confirmed that dogs serve as peridomestic reservoirs of . It is likely that the lack of efficient control is because presently used diagnostic tests miss positive dogs. Overall, 57% of the dogs had specific antibodies, but the canine infection was not uniformly fatal and many seropositive dogs remained asymptomatic or even spontaneously recovered. Furthermore, 42% of the human residents became leishmanin-positive reactors and 47% had positive serology at the initial survey, but our estimates also point at a high recovery rate among the infected population with time. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to was a good indicator of resistance to infection in this particular epidemiologic situation. The lack of any significant differences in infection rates by gender or age indicate that all of the population was at an equal risk of infection and most people were infected in the peridomestic setting.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.559
2009-04-01
2019-01-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/80/4/0800559.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.559&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB, McMahon-Pratt D, 1989. A review of the geographic distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the New World. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41 : 687–725. [Google Scholar]
  2. Quinnell RJ, Dye C, 1994. Correlates of the peridomestic abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Amazonian Brazil. Med Vet Entomol 8 : 219–224. [Google Scholar]
  3. Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O, Garcez L, Dye C, 1997. The epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis: transmission rates estimated from a cohort study in Amazonian Brazil. Parasitology 115 : 143–156. [Google Scholar]
  4. Moreno J, Alvar J, 2002. Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model. Trends Parasitol 18 : 399–405. [Google Scholar]
  5. Altet L, Francino O, Solano-Gallego L, Renier C, Sanches A, 2002. Mapping and sequencing of the canine NRAMP1gene and identification of mutations in leishmaniasis-susceptible dogs. Infect Immun 70 : 2763–2771. [Google Scholar]
  6. Quinnell RJ, Kennedy LJ, Barnes A, Courtenay O, Dye C, Garcez LM, Shaw MA, Carter SD, Thomson W, Ollier WER, 2003. Susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in the domestic dog is associated with MHC class II polymorphism. Immunogenetics 55 : 23–28. [Google Scholar]
  7. Tesh RB, 1995. Control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis: is time to change strategies? Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 : 287–292. [Google Scholar]
  8. Badaró R, Jones TC, Carvalho EM, Sampaio D, Reed SG, Barral A, Teixeira R, Johnson WD Jr, 1986a. New prospectives on a subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 154 : 1003–1011. [Google Scholar]
  9. Jeronimo SM, Teixeira MJ, Sousa A, Thielking P, Pearson RD, Evans TG, 2000. Natural history of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection in Northeastern Brazil: long term follow-up. Clin Infect Dis 30 : 608–609. [Google Scholar]
  10. Courtenay O, Quinnell RJ, Garcez LM, Shaw JJ, Dye C, 2002. Infectiousness in a cohort of Brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission. J Infect Dis 186 : 1314–1320. [Google Scholar]
  11. Dye C, Vidor E, Dereure J, 1993. Serological diagnosis of leishmaniasis: on detecting infection as well as disease. Epidemiol Infect 103 : 647–656. [Google Scholar]
  12. Fisa R, Riera C, Ribera E, Gállego M, Portús M, 2002. A nested polymerase chain reaction for dignosis and follow-up of human visceral leishmaniasis using blood samples. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 : S1191–S1194. [Google Scholar]
  13. Quinnell RJ, Courtenay O, Davidson S, Garcez L, Lambson B, Ramos P, Shaw JJ, Shaw MA, Dye C, 2001. Detection of Leishmania infantum by PCR, serology and immune response in a cohort study of Brazilian dogs. Parasitology 122 : 253–261. [Google Scholar]
  14. Reithinger R, Quinnell RJ, Alexander B, Davies CR, 2002. Rapid detection of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs: comparative study using an immunochromatographic dipstick test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 2352–2356. [Google Scholar]
  15. Porrozzi R, Santos da Costa MV, Teva A, Falqueto A, Ferreira AL, Santos CD, Fernandes AP, Gazinelli RT, Campos-Neto A, Grimaldi G Jr, 2007. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on crude and recombinant leishmanial antigens for serodiagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania infantum visceral infections in dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14 : 544–548. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sokal JE, 1975. Measurement of delayed skin-test responses. N Engl J Med 293 : 501–502. [Google Scholar]
  17. Mettler M, Grimm F, Capelli G, Camp H, 2005. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an immunoflurescent-antibody test, and two rapid tests (immunochromatographic-dipstick and gel tests) for serological diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania infections in dogs. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 5515–5519. [Google Scholar]
  18. Burns JM Jr, Shreffler WG, Benson DR, Ghalib HW, Badaró R, Reed SG, 1993. Molecular characterization of a kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania chagasi that detects specific antibody in African and American visceral leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 : 775–779. [Google Scholar]
  19. Bhatia A, Daifalla NS, Jen S, Badaró R, Reed SG, Skeike YA, 1999. Cloning, characterization and serological evaluation of K9 and K26: two related hydrophilic antigens of Leishmania chagasi. Mol Biochem Parasitol 102 : 249–261. [Google Scholar]
  20. Badaró R, Reed SG, Carvalho EM, 1983. Immunoflurescent antibody test in American visceral leishmaniasis: sensitivity and specificity of different morphological forms of two Leishmania species. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32 : 480–484. [Google Scholar]
  21. Cupolillo E, Brahim LR, Toaldo CB, Oliveira-Neto MP, Felinto de Brito ME, Falqueto A, Naiff MF, Grimaldi G Jr, 2003. Genetic polymorphism and molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from different hosts and geographic areas in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 3126–3132. [Google Scholar]
  22. Marty P, Lelievre A, Quaranta JF, Rahal A, Gari-Thoussaint M, Fichoux Y, 1994. Use of leishmanin skin test and Western blot analysis for epidemiological studies in visceral leishmaniasis areas: experience in a highly endemic focus in Alpes-maritimes (France). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 88 : 658–659. [Google Scholar]
  23. Gramiccia M, Bettini S, Gradoni L, Ciarmoli P, Verrelli ML, Loddo S, Cicalo C, 1990. Leishmaniasis in Sardinia. 5. Leishmanin reaction in the human population of a focus of low endemicity of canine leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84 : 371–374. [Google Scholar]
  24. Badaró R, Jones TC, Lourenço R, Cerf BJ, Sampaio D, Carvalho EM, Rocha H, Teixeira R, Johnson WD Jr, 1986b. A prospective study of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. J Infect Dis 154 : 636–649. [Google Scholar]
  25. Riera C, FISA R, Udina M, Gállego M, Portus M, 2004. Detection of Leishmania infantum cryptic infection in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (Eivissa, Balearic Islands, Spain) by different diagnostic methods. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 102–110. [Google Scholar]
  26. Evans TG, Teixeira MJ, Sousa AQ, Pearson RD, 1995. Short report: follow-up of the natural history of persons infected with Leishmania chagasi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53 : 360–361. [Google Scholar]
  27. Falqueto A, Sessa PA, Ferreira AL, Vieira VP, Santos CB, Varejão JBM, Cupolillo E, Porrozzi R, Carvalho-Paes LE, Grimaldi G Jr, 2003. Epidemiological and clinical features of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 : 1003–1010. [Google Scholar]
  28. Zinkernagel RM, Ehl S, Aichele P, Oehen S, Kundig T, Hengartner H, 1997. Antigen localisation regulates immune responses in a dose- and time-dependent fashion: a geographical view of immune reactivity. The anatomy of antigen-specific immune responses. Immunol Rev 156 : 199–209. [Google Scholar]
  29. Bern C, Amann J, Haque R, Chowdhury R, Ali M, Kurkjian KM, Vaz L, Wagatsuma Y, Breiman RF, Evan Secor W, Maguire JH, 2006. Loss of leishmanin skin test antigen sensitivity and potency in a longitudinal study of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75 : 744–748. [Google Scholar]
  30. Coler RN, Reed SG, 2005. Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis. Trends Parasitol 21 : 244–248. [Google Scholar]
  31. Shaw MA, Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas EA, Collins A, 1995. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana. Am J Hum Genet 57 : 1159–1169. [Google Scholar]
  32. Karplus TM, Jerônimo SM, Chang H, Helms BK, Burns TL, Murray JC, Mitchell AA, Pugh EW, Braz RF, Bezerra FL, Wilson ME, 2002. Association between the tumor necrosis factor locus and the clinical outcome of Leishmania chagasi infection. Infect Immun 70 : 6919–6925. [Google Scholar]
  33. Jerônimo SMB, Duggal P, Ettinger NA, Nascimento ET, Monteiro GR, Cabral AP, Pontes NN, Lacerda HG, Queiroz PV, Maia CG, Pearson RD, Blackwell JM, Beaty TH, Wilson ME, 2007. Genetic predisposition to self-curing infection with the protozoan Leishmania chagasi: a genome wide scan. J Infect Dis 196 : 1261–1269. [Google Scholar]
  34. Paranhos-Silva M, Freitas LAR, Santos WC, Grimaldi G Jr, Pontes-de-Carvalho LC, Oliveira-dos-Santos AJ, 1996. A cross-sectional serodiagnostic survey of canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania chagasi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 39–44. [Google Scholar]
  35. Ashford DA, David JR, Freire M, David R, Sherlock I, Eulálio MC, Sampaio DP, Badaró R, 1998. Studies on control of visceral leishmaniasis: impact of dog control on canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 53–57. [Google Scholar]
  36. Evans TG, Teixeira MJ, McAuliffe IT, Vasconcelos IAB, Vasconcelos AW, Sousa AQ, Lima JWO, Pearson RD, 1992. Epidemiolgy of visceral leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil. J Infect Dis 166 : 1124–1132. [Google Scholar]
  37. Corredor A, Gallego JF, Tesh RB, Morales A, Carrasquilla CF, Young DG, Kreutzer RD, Boshell J, Palau MT, Caceres E, Pelaez D, 1989. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40 : 480–486. [Google Scholar]
  38. Davies CR, Kaye P, Croft SL, Sundar S, 2003. Leishmaniasis: new approaches to disease control. BMJ 326 : 377–382. [Google Scholar]
  39. Boarino A, Scalone A, Gradoni L, Ferroglio E, Vitale F, Zanatta R, Giuffrida MG, Rasati S, 2005. Development of recombinant chimeric antigen expressing immunodominant B epitopes of Leishmania infantum for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12 : 647–653. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.559
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.559
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Sep 2007
  • Accepted : 19 Sep 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error