Volume 80, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Gnathostomiasis is increasingly reported among travelers returning from endemic areas. Between 2000 and 2004, thirteen patients were diagnosed with imported gnathostomiasis and followed for at least 6 months after treatment. Nine patients presented with cutaneous signs, two with gastrointestinal signs, and two with neurological signs. The median age was 38 years and the female/male sex ratio was 1.6. The patients had visited South East Asia or Central America. The median interval between symptom onset and treatment (with albendazole in 12 cases and ivermectin in one case) was 3.5 months. Post-treatment follow-up lasted a median of 15 months. Eight patients relapsed, a median of 2 months (1–7 months) after initial treatment. These eight patients had a total of 13 relapses, the last occurring a median of 16 months (2–26 months) after initial treatment. Thus patients with imported gnathostomiasis should be monitored for at least 6 months to detect late treatment failure.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Rusnak JM, Lucey DR, 1993. Clinical gnathostomiasis: case report and review of the English-language literature. Clin Infect Dis 16 : 33–50. [Google Scholar]
  2. Moore DA, McCroddan J, Dekumyoy P, Chiodini PL, 2003. Gnathostomiasis: an emerging imported disease. Emerg Infect Dis 6 : 647–650. [Google Scholar]
  3. Menard A, Dos Santos G, Dekumyoy P, Ranque S, Delmont J, Danis M, Bricaire F, Caumes E, 2003. Imported cutaneous gnathostomiasis: report of five cases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97 : 200–202. [Google Scholar]
  4. Kraivichian P, Kulkumthorn M, Yingyourd P, Akarabovorn P, Paireepai CC, 1992. Albendazole for the treatment of human gnathostomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86 : 418–421. [Google Scholar]
  5. Nontasut P, Bussaratid V, Chullawichit S, Charoensook N, Visetsuk K, 2000. Comparison of ivermectin and albendazole treatment for gnathostomiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 31 : 374–377. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kraivichian K, Nuchprayoon S, Sitichalernchai P, Chaicumpa W, Yentakam S, 2004. Treatment of cutaneous gnathostomiasis with ivermectin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71 : 623–628. [Google Scholar]
  7. Nontasut P, Claesson BA, Dekumyoy P, Pakdee W, Chullawichit S, 2005. Double-dose ivermectin vs albendazole for the treatment of gnathostomiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36 : 650–652. [Google Scholar]
  8. Clement-Rigolet MC, Danis M, Caumes E, 2004. Gnathostomosis, an exotic disease increasingly imported into western countries. Presse Med 33 : 1527–1532. [Google Scholar]
  9. Diaz Camacho SP, Willms K, de la Cruz Otero Mdel C, Zazueta Ramos ML, Bayliss Gaxiola S, Castro Velázquez R, Osuna Ramírez I, Bojórquez Contreras A, Torres Montoya EH, Sánchez Gonzáles S, 2003. Acute outbreak of gnathostomiasis in a fishing community in Sinaloa, Mexico. Parasitol Int 52 : 133–140. [Google Scholar]
  10. Diaz Camacho SP, Zazueta Ramos M, Ponce Torrecillas E, Osuna Ramirez I, Castro Velazquez R, Flores Gaxiola A, Baquera Heredia J, Willms K, Akahane H, Ogata K, Nawa Y, 1998. Clinical manifestations and immunodiagnosis of gnathostomiasis in Culiacan, Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 908–915. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kraivichian K, Nuchprayoon S, Siriyasatien P, Saksirisamphan W, Nuchprayoon I, 2005. Resolution of eosinophilia after treatment of cutaneous gnathostomiasis. J Med Assoc Thai 88 : S163–S166. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Mar 2008
  • Accepted : 07 Jul 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error