1921
Volume 80, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Enteroaggregative (EAEC) pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. Here, we use a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the prevalence of 10 genes encoding serine protease autotransporter toxins (SPATEs) in a collection of clinical EAEC isolates. Eighty-six percent of EAEC strains harbored genes encoding one or more class I cytotoxic SPATE proteins (Pet, Sat, EspP, or SigA). Two Class II, non-cytotoxic, SPATE genes were found among EAEC strains: and , each originally described in 2a. Using a multiplex PCR for five SPATE genes ( and ), we found that most of the isolates also harbored more than one SPATE, whereas members of most other pathotypes rarely harbored a cytotoxic SPATE gene. SPATEs may be relevant to the pathogenesis of both EAEC and spp.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.294
2009-02-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/80/2/0800294.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.294&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Glandt M, Adachi JA, Mathewson JJ, Jiang ZD, DiCesare D, Ashley D, Ericsson CD, DuPont HL, 1999. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of traveler’s diarrhea: clinical response to ciprofloxacin. Clin Infect Dis 29 : 335–338.
  2. Adachi JA, Jiang ZD, Mathewson JJ, Verenkar MP, Thompson S, Martinez-Sandoval F, Steffen R, Ericsson CD, DuPont HL, 2001. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a major etiologic agent in traveler’s diarrhea in 3 regions of the world. Clin Infect Dis 32 : 1706–1709.
  3. Adachi JA, Ericsson CD, Jiang ZD, DuPont MW, Pallegar SR, DuPont HL, 2002. Natural history of enteroaggregative and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection among US travelers to Guadalajara, Mexico. J Infect Dis 185 : 1681–1683.
  4. Tompkins DS, Hudson MJ, Smith HR, Eglin RP, Wheeler JG, Brett MM, Owen RJ, Brazier JS, Cumberland P, King V, Cook PE, 1999. A study of infectious intestinal disease in England: microbiological findings in cases and controls. Commun Dis Public Health 2 : 108–113.
  5. Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Czeczulin J, Dubovsky F, Kaper JB, Nataro JP, 2000. Heterogeneous virulence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in southwest Nigeria. J Infect Dis 181 : 252–260.
  6. Wanke CA, Gerrior J, Blais V, Mayer H, Acheson D, 1998. Successful treatment of diarrheal disease associated with enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 178 : 1369–1372.
  7. Wanke CA, Mayer H, Weber R, Zbinden R, Watson DA, Acheson D, 1998. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a potential cause of diarrheal disease in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 178 : 185–190.
  8. Durrer P, Zbinden R, Fleisch F, Altwegg M, Ledergerber B, Karch H, Weber R, 2000. Intestinal infection due to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. J Infect Dis 182 : 1540–1544.
  9. Mossoro C, Glaziou P, Yassibanda S, Lan NT, Bekondi C, Minssart P, Bernier C, Le Bouguenec C, Germani Y, 2002. Chronic diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with HEp-2 adherent Escherichia coli in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Bangui, Central African Republic. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 3086–3088.
  10. Gassama-Sow A, Sow PS, Gueye M, Gueye-N’diaye A, Perret JL, M’Boup S, Aidara-Kane A, 2004. Characterization of pathogenic Escherichia coli in human immunodeficiency virus-related diarrhea in Senegal. J Infect Dis 189 : 75–78.
  11. Menard LP, Dubreuil JD, 2002. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1): a new toxin with an old twist. Crit Rev Microbiol 28 : 43–60.
  12. Paiva de Sousa C, Dubreuil JD, 2001. Distribution and expression of the astA gene (EAST1 toxin) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Int J Med Microbiol 291 : 15–20.
  13. Savarino SJ, Fasano A, Robertson DC, Levine MM, 1991. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli elaborate a heat-stable enterotoxin demonstrable in an in vitro rabbit intestinal model. J Clin Invest 87 : 1450–1455.
  14. Eslava C, Navarro-Garcia F, Czeczulin JR, Henderson IR, Cravioto A, Nataro JP, 1998. Pet, an autotransporter enterotoxin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 66 : 3155–3163.
  15. Vila J, Vargas M, Henderson IR, Gascon J, Nataro JP, 2000. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence factors in traveler’s diarrhea strains. J Infect Dis 182 : 1780–1783.
  16. Henderson IR, Nataro JP, 2001. Virulence functions of autotransporter proteins. Infect Immun 69 : 1231–1243.
  17. Henderson IR, Hicks S, Navarro-Garcia F, Elias WP, Philips AD, Nataro JP, 1999. Involvement of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli plasmid-encoded toxin in causing human intestinal damage. Infect Immun 67 : 5338–5344.
  18. Fasano A, Noriega FR, Liao FM, Wang W, Levine MM, 1997. Effect of Shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1) on rabbit intestine in vitro and in vivo. Gut 40 : 505–511.
  19. Huang DB, Okhuysen PC, Jiang ZD, DuPont HL, 2004. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: an emerging enteric pathogen. Am J Gastroenterol 99 : 383–389.
  20. Henderson IR, Navarro-Garcia F, Desvaux M, Fernandez RC, Ala’Aldeen D, 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68 : 692–744.
  21. Dutta PR, Cappello R, Navarro-Garcia F, Nataro JP, 2002. Functional comparison of serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae. Infect Immun 70 : 7105–7113.
  22. Henderson IR, Czeczulin J, Eslava C, Noriega F, Nataro JP, 1999. Characterization of pic, a secreted protease of Shigella flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 67 : 5587–5596.
  23. Benjelloun-Touimi Z, Sansonetti PJ, Parsot C, 1995. SepA, the major extracellular protein of Shigella flexneri: autonomous secretion and involvement in tissue invasion. Mol Microbiol 17 : 123–135.
  24. Provence DL, Curtiss R 3rd, 1994. Isolation and characterization of a gene involved in hemagglutination by an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Infect Immun 62 : 1369–1380.
  25. Czeczulin JR, Whittam TS, Henderson IR, Navarro-Garcia F, Nataro JP, 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of enteroaggregative and diffusely adherent Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 67 : 2692–2699.
  26. Olesen B, Neimann J, Bottiger B, Ethelberg S, Schiellerup P, Jensen C, Helms M, Scheutz F, Olsen KE, Krogfelt K, Petersen E, Molbak K, Gerner-Smidt P, 2005. Etiology of diarrhea in young children in Denmark: a case-control study. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 3636–3641.
  27. Boisen N, Struve C, Scheutz F, Krogfelt KA, Nataro JP, 2008. New adhesin of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli related to the Afa/Dr/AAF family. Infect Immun 76 : 3281–3292.
  28. Dudley EG, Thomson NR, Parkhill J, Morin NP, Nataro JP, 2006. Proteomic and microarray characterization of the AggR regulon identifies a pheU pathogenicity island in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 61 : 1267–1282.
  29. Sheikh J, Hicks S, Dall’Agnol M, Phillips AD, Nataro JP, 2001. Roles for Fis and YafK in biofilm formation by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 41 : 983–997.
  30. Wei J, Goldberg MB, Burland V, Venkatesan MM, Deng W, Fournier G, Mayhew GF, Plunkett G 3rd, Rose DJ, Darling A, Mau B, Perna NT, Payne SM, Runyen-Janecky LJ, Zhou S, Schwartz DC, Blattner FR, 2003. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T. Infect Immun 71 : 2775–2786.
  31. Orskov F, Orskov I, 1992. Escherichia coli serotyping and disease in man and animals. Can J Microbiol 38 : 699–704.
  32. Guyer DM, Henderson IR, Nataro JP, Mobley HL, 2000. Identification of sat, an autotransporter toxin produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 38 : 53–66.
  33. Guignot J, Chaplais C, Coconnier-Polter MH, Servin AL, 2007. The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, functions as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli by promoting lesions in tight junction of polarized epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol 9 : 204–221.
  34. Maroncle NM, Sivick KE, Brady R, Stokes FE, Mobley HL, 2006. Protease activity, secretion, cell entry, cytotoxicity, and cellular targets of secreted autotransporter toxin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 74 : 6124–6134.
  35. Canizalez-Roman A, Navarro-Garcia F, 2003. Fodrin CaM-binding domain cleavage by Pet from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli leads to actin cytoskeletal disruption. Mol Microbiol 48 : 947–958.
  36. Taddei CR, Moreno AC, Fernandes Filho A, Montemor LP, Martinez MB, 2003. Prevalence of secreted autotran sporter toxin gene among diffusely adhering Escherichia coli iso lated from stools of children. FEMS Microbiol Lett 227 : 249–253.
  37. Al-Hasani K, Henderson IR, Sakellaris H, Rajakumar K, Grant T, Nataro JP, Robins-Browne R, Adler B, 2000. The sigA gene which is borne on the she pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri 2a encodes an exported cytopathic protease involved in intestinal fluid accumulation. Infect Immun 68 : 2457–2463.
  38. Roy S, Thanasekaran K, Dutta Roy AR, Sehgal SC, 2006. Distribution of Shigella enterotoxin genes and secreted autotransporter toxin gene among diverse species and serotypes of Shigella isolated from Andaman Islands, India. Trop Med Int Health 11 : 1694–1698.
  39. Parsot C, 2005. Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity factors. FEMS Microbiol Lett 252 : 11–18.
  40. Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HL, 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat Rev Microbiol 2 : 123–140.
  41. Levine MM, Bergquist EJ, Nalin DR, Waterman DH, Hornick RB, Young CR, Sotman S, 1978. Escherichia coli strains that cause diarrhoea but do not produce heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and are non-invasive. Lancet 1 : 1119–1122.
  42. Bilge SS, Clausen CR, Lau W, Moseley SL, 1989. Molecular characterization of a fimbrial adhesin, F1845, mediating diffuse adherence of diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. J Bacteriol 171 : 4281–4289.
  43. RestieriC,GarrissG,LocasMC,DozoisCM, 2007. Autotransporter-encoding sequences are phylogenetically distributed among Escherichia coli clinical isolates and reference strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 73 : 1553–1562.
  44. Bernier C, Gounon P, Le Bouguenec C, 2002. Identification of an aggregative adhesion fimbria (AAF) type III-encoding operon in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a sensitive probe for detecting the AAF-encoding operon family. Infect Immun 70 : 4302–4311.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.294
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.294
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Jul 2008
  • Accepted : 02 Oct 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error