1921
Volume 80, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Information on malaria-associated anemia in adult patients is scarce in South American populations. From 2004 to 2006, malaria patients 18 to 45 years of age were recruited in a descriptive cross-sectional study from two different towns: Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon (120 patients) where incidence is lower (≈20%), and in Tumaco on the Colombian Pacific Coast (126 patients) where incidence is higher (≈90%). Relationships between hematologic parameters and independent variables were explored using cross-tabulations and multiple linear regression analyses. We found an inverse relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with days of illness in both sites. In Manaus but not in Tumaco, red cell distribution width (RDW) was related to asexual parasitemia. Reticulocytes were higher in infection in Tumaco. Only in Tumaco, two patients with infection presented with severe anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL). Etiologic factors associated with hematologic changes in malaria seem to be multifactorial. More studies are needed to clarify the anemia determinants in uncomplicated malaria in South America, where malaria transmission is mostly unstable.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.146
2009-01-01
2017-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/80/1/0800146.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.146&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Wickramasinghe SN, Abdalla SH, 2000. Blood and bone marrow changes in malaria. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 13 : 277–299.
  2. Beutler E, Duparc S, 2007. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 : 779–789.
  3. Ghosh K, Ghosh K, 2007. Pathogenesis of anemia in malaria: a concise review. Parasitol Res 101 : 1463–1469.
  4. Zamora F, Ramirez O, Vergara J, Arévalo-Herrera M, Herrera S, 2005. Hemoglobin levels related to days of illness, race, and Plasmodium species in Colombian patients with uncomplicated malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 : 50–54.
  5. Pan American Health Organization, 2008. Annual Malaria Cases and Deaths in the Americas, 1998–2006. Available at: http://www.paho.org/english/ad/dpc/cd/malaria.htm. Accessed July 9, 2008.
  6. González JM, Olano V, Vergara J, Arevalo-Herrera M, Carrasquilla G, Herrera S, Lopez JA, 1997. Unstable, low-level transmission of malaria on the Colombian Pacific Coast. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 91 : 349–358.
  7. Gonçalves MJF, Alecrim WD, 2004. Non-planed urbanization as a contributing factor for malaria incidence in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 6 : 156–166.
  8. Moody AH, Chiodini PL, 2000. Methods for the detection of blood parasites. Clin Lab Haematol 22 : 189–201.
  9. Calis JC, Phiri KS, Faragher EB, Brabin BJ, Bates I, Cuevas LE, de Haan RJ, Phiri AI, Malange P, Khoka M, Hulshof PJ, van Lieshout L, Beld MG, Teo YY, Rockett KA, Richardson A, Kwiatkowski DP, Molyneux ME, van Hensbroek MB, 2008. Severe anemia in Malawian children. N Engl J Med 358 : 888–899.
  10. Dim CC, Onah HE, 2007. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at booking in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. MedGenMed 9 : 11.
  11. Cardoso MA, Ferreira MU, Camargo LM, Szarfarc SC, 1994. Anaemia, iron deficiency and malaria in a rural community in Brazilian Amazon. Eur J Clin Nutr 48 : 326–332.
  12. Ferreira MU, da Silva-Nunes M, Bertolino CN, Malafronte RS, Muniz PT, Cardoso MA, 2007. Anemia and iron deficiency in school children, adolescents, and adults: a community-based study in rural Amazonia. Am J Public Health 97 : 237–239.
  13. Perez Mato S, 1998. Anemia and malaria in a Yanomami Amerindian population from the southern Venezuelan Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 : 998–1001.
  14. Blair S, Álavarez G, Campuzano G, 1997. Relationship between anemia and malaria in a rural Colombian population. Bol Dir Malariol y San Amb 37 : 7–13.
  15. Santana MS, Rocha MA, Arcanjo AR, Sardinha JF, Alecrim WD, Alecrim MGC, 2007. Association of methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients treated with primaquine. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 40 : 533–536.
  16. Moyano M, Mendez F, 2005. Erythrocyte defects and parasitemia density in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Buenaventura, Colombia. Rev Panam Salud Publica 18 : 25–32.
  17. Brooker S, Jardim-Botelho A, Quinnell RJ, Geiger SM, Caldas IR, Fleming F, Hotez PJ, Correa-Oliveira R, Rodrigues LC, Bethony JM, 2007. Age-related changes in hookworm infection, anaemia and iron deficiency in an area of high Necator americanus hookworm transmission in south-eastern Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101 : 146–154.
  18. Ribeiro CTD, Lacerda MVG, Ferreira JO, 2008. Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: some aspects of its epidemiology, clinical spectrum and naturally induced immune responses. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 101 : 243–248.
  19. Valero-Bernal MV, 2006. Malaria in Colombia: retrospective glance during the past 40 years. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 8 : 141–149.
  20. Cardoso MA, Ferreira MU, Camargo LM, Szarfarc SC, 1992. Anemia in a population from an endemic area of malaria, Rondonia (Brazil). Rev Saude Publica 26 : 161–166.
  21. Fernandes AA, Carvalho LJ, Zanini GM, Ventura AM, Souza JM, Cotias PM, Silva-Filho IL, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, 2008. Similar cytokine responses and degrees of anemia in patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15 : 650–658.
  22. Giha HA, Elbashir MI, A-Elbasit IE, A-Gadir TM, ElGhazali G, 2008. Bimodal transmission of cerebral malaria and severe malarial anemia and reciprocal co-existence of sexual and asexual parasitemia in an area of seasonal malaria transmission. Parasitol Res 103 : 81–85.
  23. Kurtzhals JA, Rodrigues O, Addae M, Commey JO, Nkrumah FK, Hviid L, 1997. Reversible suppression of bone marrow response to erythropoietin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Br J Haematol 97 : 169–174.
  24. Wickramasinghe SN, Looareesuwan S, Nagachinta B, White NJ, 1989. Dyserythropoiesis and ineffective erythropoiesis in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Br J Haematol 72 : 91–99.
  25. Gandapur AS, Malik SA, Raziq F, 1997. Bone marrow changes in human malaria: a retrospective study. J Pak Med Assoc 47 : 137–139.
  26. Baird JK, 2007. Neglect of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Trends Parasitol 23 : 533–539.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.146
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.146
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Aug 2008
  • Accepted : 06 Oct 2008

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error