Volume 81, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We describe the first case of HIV co-infection reported in Bolivia. Initially hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and bronchitis, the patient had numerous cutaneous and mucosal lesions caused by () The patient was also diagnosed as severely immunocompromised because of HIV infection.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M, 2007. Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nat Rev Microbiol 5: 873–882.
  2. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S, 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 581–596.
  3. Bern C, Maguire JH, Alvar J, 2008. Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e313.
  4. Garcia AL, Parrado R, Rojas E, Delgado R, Dujardin JC, Reithinger R, 2009. Leishmaniases in Bolivia: comprehensive review and current status. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 704–711.
  5. Lawn SD, Whetham J, Chiodini PL, Kanagalingam J, Watson J, Behrens RH, Lockwood DN, 2004. New world mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging health problem among British travellers. QJM 97: 781–788.
  6. Protto JP, Schaaf D, Suárez MF, Darras C, 2008. Epidemiological environment and response to the HIV epidemic in Bolivia. Rev Panam Salud Publica 23: 288–294.
  7. UNAIDS. Country Responses. Bolivia. http://www.unaids.org/en/CountryResponses/Countries/bolivia.asp.
  8. Alvar J, Aparicio P, Aseffa A, Den Boer M, Cañavate C, Dedet JP, Gradoni L, Ter Horst R, López-Vélez R, Moreno J, 2008. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 334–359.
  9. Romero HD, Taranto NJ, Malchiodi EL, 2004. American integumentary leishmaniasis associated with AIDS in Argentina. Medicina (B Aires) 64: 47–50.
  10. Amato VS, Nicodemo AC, Amato JG, Boulos M, Neto VA, 2000. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B(AmBisome). J Antimicrob Chemother 46: 341–342.
  11. Borges AS, Machado AA, Ferreira MS, de Castro Figueiredo JF, Silva GF, Cimerman S, Bacha HA, Teixeira MC, 1999. Concurrent leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a study of four cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 32: 713–719.
  12. Da-Cruz AM, Filgueiras DV, Coutinho Z, Mayrink W, Grimaldi G Jr, De Luca PM, Mendonca SC, Coutinho SG, 1999. Atypical mucocutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: T-cell responses and remission of lesions associated with antigen immunotherapy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94: 537–542.
  13. Mattos M, Caiza A, Fernandes O, Gonçalves AJ, Pirmez C, Souza CS, Oliveira-Neto MP, 1998. American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection: report of four cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 10: 218–225.
  14. Machado ES, Braga Mda P, Da Cruz AM, Coutinho SG, Vieira AR, Rutowitsch MS, Cuzzi-Maya T, Grimaldi G Jr, Menezes JA, 1992. Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis in a patient with AIDS: a case report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87: 487–492.
  15. Fourcade S, Huber FI, Blanchet D, Aznar C, Clyti E, Simon S, Sainte-Marie D, Carme B, Couppié P, 2008. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis: a case report in an HIV-infected patient. Med Trop 68: 533–536.
  16. Couppié P, Clyti E, Sobesky M, Bissuel F, Del Giudice P, Sainte-Marie D, Dedet JP, Carme B, Pradinaud R, 2004. Comparative study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and non-HIV-infected patients in French Guiana. Br J Dermatol 151: 1165–1171.
  17. Echevarría J, Campos P, Chang J, Cuéllar L, Gotuzzo E, Paz L, Llanos-Cuentas A, 1993. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and AIDS: case report. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 186.
  18. Garcia AL, Tellez T, Parrado R, Rojas E, Bermudez H, Dujardin JC, 2007. Epidemiological monitoring of American tegumentary leishmaniasis: molecular characterization of a peridomestic transmission cycle in the Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 1208–1213.
  19. Rojas E, Parrado R, Delgado R, Reithinger R, Garcia AL, 2009. Leishmaniasis in Chaparé, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 678–680.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 May 2009
  • Accepted : 20 Jun 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error