- Authors: Daniel Blount1,*, Doreen Hooi1, Johanna Feary1, Andrea Venn1, Gary Telford1, Alan Brown1, John Britton1, David Pritchard1
View Affiliations Hide Affiliations
- Publisher: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,
- Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 81, Issue 5, Nov 2009, p. 911 - 916
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0237
f Immunologic Profiles of Persons Recruited for a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Hookworm Infection
Data from epidemiologic studies suggest that hookworm infections, in establishing an immunologic phenotype conducive to parasite survival, may protect against the development of allergic disease. We describe immunologic findings from a clinical study designed to investigate the safety of iatrogenic hookworm infection in participants with allergic rhinitis. The low, relatively safe level of hookworm infection used in this study was immunogenic, inducing eosinophilia and a significant specific IgG response. Importantly, no potentiation of IgE responses to the environmental allergens to which the participants were sensitized was seen. However, no evidence of systemic immune regulation was seen in infected participants. This finding may indicate that the level of infection or the frequency of infection may have to be altered in future trials to induce a therapeutically conducive immunologic phenotype.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...
- Bleakley H, 2007. Disease and development: evidence from hookworm eradication in the American south. Q J Econ 122: 73–117.
- Hotez PJ, Pritchard DI, 1995. Hookworm infection. Sci Am 272: 68–74.
- Quinnell RJ, Pritchard DI, Raiko A, Brown AP, Shaw MA, 2004. Immune responses in human necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis 190: 430–438.
- Scrivener S, Yemaneberhan H, Zebenigus M, Tilahun D, Girma S, Ali S, McElroy P, Custovic A, Woodcock A, Pritchard DI, Venn A, Britton J, 2001. Independent effects of intestinal parasite infection and domestic allergen exposure on the risk of wheeze in Ethiopia. Lancet 358: 1493–1499.
- Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G, 2008. Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B cells. Ann Neurol 64: 187–199.
- Fallon PG, Mangan NE, 2007. Suppression of TH2-type allergic reactions by helminth infection. Nat Rev Immunol 7: 220–230.
- Maizels RM, Balic A, Gomez-Escobar N, Nair M, Taylor MD, Allen JE, 2004. Helminth parasites–masters of regulation. Immunol Rev 201: 89–116.
- Elliott DE, Li J, Blum A, Metwali A, Qadir K, Urban JF Jr, Weinstock JV, 2003. Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284: G385–G391.
- Sutton TL, Zhao A, Madden KB, Elfrey JE, Tuft BA, Sullivan CA, Urban JF Jr, Shea-Donohue T, 2008. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of enteric Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in a murine model. Infect Immun 76: 4772–4782.
- Setiawan T, Metwali A, Blum AM, Ince MN, Urban JF Jr, Elliott DE, Weinstock JV, 2007. Heligmosomoides polygyrus promotes regulatory T-cell cytokine production in the murine normal distal intestine. Infect Immun 75: 4655–4663.
- Khan WI, Blennerhasset PA, Varghese AK, Chowdhury SK, Omsted P, Deng Y, Collins SM, 2002. Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice. Infect Immun 70: 5931–5937.
- Hunter MM, Wang A, Hirota CL, McKay DM, 2005. Neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody blocks the protective effect of tapeworm infection in a murine model of chemically induced colitis. J Immunol 174: 7368–7375.
- Wilson MS, Taylor MD, Balic A, Finney CA, Lamb JR, Maizels RM, 2005. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J Exp Med 202: 1199–1212.
- Schnoeller C, Rausch S, Pillai S, Avagyan A, Wittig BM, Loddenkemper C, Hamann A, Hamelmann E, Lucius R, Hartmann S, 2008. A helminth immunomodulator reduces allergic and inflammatory responses by induction of IL-10-producing macrophages. J Immunol 180: 4265–4272.
- Kane CM, Cervi L, Sun J, McKee AS, Masek KS, Shapira S, Hunter CA, Pearce EJ, 2004. Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J Immunol 173: 7454–7461.
- Feary J, Venn A, Brown A, Hooi D, Falcone F, Mortimer K, Pritchard D, Britton J, 2009. Safety of hookworm infection in individuals with measurable airway responsiveness: a randomised placebo-controlled feasibility study. Clin Exp Allergy 39: 1060–1068.
- Turner KJ, Feddema L, Quinn EH, 1979. Non-specific potentiation of IgE by parasitic infections in man. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 58: 232–236.
- Orr TS, Blair AM, 1969. Potentiated reagin response to egg albumin and conalbumin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats. Life Sci 8: 1073–1077.
- Kumar S, Pritchard D, 1992. The partial characterisation of pro-teases present in the excretory secretory products and exsheathing fluid of the infective (L3) larva of Necator americanus. Int J Parasitol 25: 563–572.
- Pritchard DI, Walsh EA, 1995. The specificity of the human IgE response to Necator americanus. Parasite Immunol 17: 605–607.
- Mortimer K, Brown A, Feary J, Jagger C, Lewis S, Antoniak M, Pritchard D, Britton J, 2006. Dose ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection of Necator americanus in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 914–920.
- Pritchard DI, Quinnell RJ, Moustafa M, McKean PG, Slater AF, Raiko A, Dale DD, Keymer AE, 1991. Hookworm (Necator americanus) infection and storage iron depletion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 235–238.
- Carr A, Pritchard DI, 1987. Antigen expression during development of the human hookworm, Necator americanus(Nematoda). Parasite Immunol 9: 219–234.
- Geiger SM, Caldas IR, Mc Glone BE, Campi-Azevedo AC, De Oliveira LM, Brooker S, Diemert D, Corrêa-Oliveira R, Bethony JM, 2007. Stage-specific immune responses in human Necator americanus infection. Parasite Immunol 29: 347–358.
- Pritchard DI, Walsh EA, Quinnell RJ, Raiko A, Edmonds P, Keymer AE, 1992. Isotypic variation in antibody responses in a community in Papua New Guinea to larval and adult antigens during infection, and following reinfection, with hookworm Necator americanus. Parasite Immunol 14: 617–631.
- Wright V, Bickle Q, 2005. Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection. Clin Exp Immunol 142: 398–403.
- Maxwell C, Hussain R, Nutman TB, Poindexter RW, Little MD, Schad GA, Ottesen EA, 1987. The clinical and immunologic responses of normal human volunteers to low dose hookworm (Necator americanus) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37: 126–134.
- Ogilvie BM, Bartlett A, Godfrey RC, Turton JA, Worms MJ, Yeates RA, 1978. Antibody responses in self infections with Necator americanus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72: 66–71.
- Ball PAJ, Bartlett A, 1969. Serological reactions to infection with Necator americanus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 63: 362–369.
- Culley FJ, Brown A, Girod N, Pritchard DI, Williams TJ, 2002. Innate and cognate mechanisms of pulmonary eosinophilia in helminth infection. Eur J Immunol 32: 1376–1385.
- Pritchard DI, Quinnell RJ, Walsh EA, 1995. Immunity in humans to Necator americanus: IgE, parasite weight and fecundity. Parasite Immunol 17: 71–75.
Data & Media loading...
- More Less