Volume 81, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We studied the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Mejia canton, the major dairy cattle production area in northern Ecuador. Twenty dairy herds comprising 2,022 cattle were selected. In 2007, each animal was tested using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). In 2008, a follow-up test was performed in the same herds. The true annual incidence was 1.70%, and the true prevalence was 7.41% and 7.13% in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The prevalence was 0.27% and 0.57% in medium-sized herds in 2007 and 2008, respectively, compared with 8.63% and 8.43% in large herds ( < 0.01). The number of skin test–positive cases also increased significantly with age ( = 0.03), contacts with other species of animals ( < 0.01), and introduction of new cattle ( = 0.04). Herd prevalence was 55% in 2007 and 65% in 2008. This study shows the lack of knowledge in cattle farmers about this zoonosis and the necessity for a national BTB control program in Ecuador.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Acha P, Szyfres B, 2001. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. Bacterioses and Mycoses. Third edition. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.
  2. Suazo FM, Escalera AM, Torres RM, 2003. A review of M. bovis BCG protection against TB in cattle and other animals species. Prev Vet Med 58: 1–13.
  3. Abalos P, Retamal P, 2004. Tuberculosis: ¿una zoonosis re-emergente? Rev Sci Tech 23: 583–594.
  4. Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ, Raviglione MC, Fujikura T, Cousins D, Robinson RA, Huchzermeyer HF, de Kantor I, Meslin FX, 1998. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 4: 59–70.
  5. Gil A, Samartino L, 2001. Zoonosis en los Sistemas de Producción Animal de las Areas Urbanas y Periurbanas de América Latina. Livestock Policy Discussion Paper No. 2. Rome: FAO.
  6. de Kantor IN, Ritacco V, 2006. An update on bovine tuberculosis programmes in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Vet Microbiol 112: 111–118.
  7. Proaño-Perez F, Rigouts L, Brandt J, Dorny P, Ron J, Chavez M, Rodriguez R, Fissette K, Van Aerde A, Portaels F, Benitez-Ortiz W, 2006. Preliminary observations on Mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 318–323.
  8. SICA, 2000. Servicio de informática y Censo agropecuario del Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería del Ecuador. Tercer Censo Nacional Agropecuario. Available at: http://www.sica.gov.ec/censo/docs/nacionales/tabla6.htm. Accessed May 2, 2008.
  9. Anonymous, 2008. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Paris: International Office of Epizootic (OIE).
  10. Grooms D, Molesworth J, 2000. The Comparative Cervical Tuberculin Test. Michigan State University Extension. Bovine TB Notes. Extension Buletin E-2731, New, September. Available at: http://cvm.msu.edu/extension/docs/TB/E-2731.pdf. Accessed October 10, 2008.
  11. Berkvens D, Speybroeck N, Praet N, Adel A, Lesaffre E, 2006. Estimating disease prevalence in Bayesian framework using probabilistic constraints. Epidemiology 17: 145–153.
  12. Monaghan ML, Doherty ML, Collins JD, Kazda JF, Quinn PJ, 1994. The tuberculin test. Vet Microbiol 40: 111–124.
  13. Cooney R, Kazda J, Quinn J, Cook B, Muller K, Monaghan M, 1997. Environmental mycobacteria in Ireland as a source of non-specific sesitisation to tuberculins. Ir Vet J 41: 363–366.
  14. Biet F, Boschiroli ML, Thorel MF, Guilloteau LA, 2005. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium–intracellulare complex (MAC). Vet Res 36: 411–436.
  15. Oloya J, Kazwala R, Lund A, Opuda-Asibo J, Demelash B, Skjerve E, Johansen TB, Djønne B, 2007. Characterisation of mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda. BMC Microbiol 7: 95.
  16. Shirima GM, Kazwala RR, Kambarage DM, 2003. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in different farming systems in the eastern zone of Tanzania. Prev Vet Med 57: 167–172.
  17. Oloya J, Muma JB, Opuda-Asibo J, Djønne B, Kazwala R, Skjerve E, 2007. Risk factors for herd-level bovine-tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda. Prev Vet Med 80: 318–329.
  18. Kazwala RR, Kambarage DM, Daborn CJ, Nyange J, Jiwa SF, Sharp JM, 2001. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Vet Res Commun 25: 609–614.
  19. Omer MK, Skjerve E, Woldehiwet Z, Holstad G, 2001. A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in dairy farms in Asmara, Eritrea. Trop Anim Health Prod 33: 295–303.
  20. Cook AJ, Tuchili LM, Buve A, Foster SD, Godfrey-Fausett P, Pandey GS, McAdam KP, 1996. Human and bovine tuberculosis in the Monze District of Zambia–a cross-sectional study. Br Vet J 152: 37–46.
  21. Cleaveland S, Shaw DJ, Mfinanga SG, Shirima G, Kazwala RR, Eblate E, Sharp M, 2007. Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 87: 30–43.
  22. Denny GO, Wilesmith JW, 1999. Bovine tuberculosis in northern Ireland: a case-control study of herd risk factors. Vet Rec 144: 305–310.
  23. Kaneene JB, Bruning-Fann CS, Granger LM, Miller R, Porter-Spalding BA, 2002. Environmental and farm management factors associated with tuberculosis on cattle farms in northeastern Michigan. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221: 837–842.
  24. Pavlik I, Yayo Ayele W, Parmova I, Melicharek I, Hanzlikova M, Kormendy B, Nagy G, Cvetnic Z, Ocepek M, Fejzic N, Lipiec M, 2002. Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in seven central European countries during the years 1990–1999. Vet. Med Czech 47: 45–51.
  25. Collins JD, 2006. Tuberculosis in cattle: strategic planning for the future. Vet Microbiol 112: 369–381.
  26. Munyeme M, Muma JB, Skjerve E, Nambota AM, Phiri IG, Samui KL, Dorny P, Tryland M, 2008. Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia. Prev Vet Med 85: 317–328.
  27. Ameni G, Aseffa A, Engers H, Young D, Gordon S, Hewinson G, Vordemeier M, 2007. High prevalence and increased severity of pathology of bovine tuberculosis in Holsteins compared to zebu breeds under field cattle husbandry in central Ethiopia. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 1356–1361.
  28. Munroe FA, Dohoo IR, McNab WB, Spangler L, 1999. Risk factors for the between-herd spread of Mycobacterium bovis in Canadian cattle and cervids between 1985 and 1994. Prev Vet Med 41: 119–133.
  29. Cousins DV, Huchzermeyer HFKA, Griffin JFT, Bruckner GK, Van Rensburg IBJ, Kriek NPJ, 2004. Tuberculosis. Coetzer JAW, Tustin RC, eds. Infectious Diseases of Livestock. Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973–1989.
  30. Lindeboom JA, Kuijper EJ, Prins JM, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet ES, Lindeboom R, 2006. Tuberculin skin testing is useful in the screening for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. Clin Infect Dis 43: 1547–1551.
  31. Goodchild AV, Clifton-Hadley RS, 2001. Cattle-to-cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 81: 23–41.
  32. Neill SD, O’Brien JJ, Hanna J, 1991. A mathematical model for Mycobacterium bovis excretion from tuberculous cattle. Vet Microbiol 28: 103–109.
  33. Menzies FD, Neill SD, 2000. Cattle-to-cattle transmission of bovine tuberculosis. Vet J 160: 92–106.
  34. Phillips CJ, Foster CR, Morris PA, Teverson R, 2003. The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection to cattle. Res Vet Sci 74: 1–15.
  35. Ayele WY, Neill SD, Zinsstag J, Weiss MG, Pavlik I, 2004. Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 8: 924–937.
  36. Parra A, Larrasa J, García A, Alonso JM, de Mendoza JH, 2005. Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in wild animals in Spain: a first approach to risk factor analysis. Vet Microbiol 110: 293–300.
  37. Brown WH, Hernández de Anda J, 1998. Tuberculosis in adult beef cattle of Mexican origin shipped direct-to-slaughter into Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212: 557–559.
  38. Milian-Suazo F, Salman MD, Ramirez C, Payeur JB, Rhyan JC, Santillan M, 2000. Identification of tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Mexico. Am J Vet Res 61: 86–89.
  39. Marangon S, Martini M, Dalla Pozza M, Neto F, 1998. A case-control study on bovine tuberculosis in the Veneto Region (Italy). Prev Vet Med 34: 87–95.
  40. Gopal R, Goodchild A, Hewinson G, de la Rua Domenech R, Clifton-Hadley R, 2006. Introduction of bovine tuberculosis to north-east England by bought-in cattle. Vet Rec 159: 265–271.
  41. Olea-Popelka FJ, White PW, Collins JD, O’Keeffe J, Kelton DF, Martin SW, 2004. Breakdown severity during a bovine tuberculosis episode as a predictor of future herd breakdowns in Ireland. Prev Vet Med 63: 163–172.
  42. Gormley E, Doyle MB, Fitzsimons T, McGill K, Collins JD, 2006. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle by use of the gamma-interferon (Bovigam1) assay. Vet Microbiol 112: 171–179.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Apr 2009
  • Accepted : 20 Jul 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error