1921
Volume 81, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Cliff swallows () were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 10 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0136
2009-12-01
2017-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/81/6/0811159.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0136&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Komar N, Panella NA, Langevin SA, Brault AC, Amador M, Edwards E, Owen JC, 2005. Avian hosts for West Nile virus in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, 2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 1031–1037.
  2. Komar N, Langevin S, Hinten S, Nemeth N, Edwards E, Hettler D, Davis B, Bowen R, Bunning M, 2003. Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 311–322.
  3. Kilpatrick AM, LaDeau SL, Marra PP, 2007. Ecology of West Nile virus transmission and its impact on birds in the western hemisphere. Auk 124: 1121–1136.
  4. Reisen WK, Fang Y, Martinez VM, 2005. Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission. J Med Entomol 42: 367–375.
  5. Brown CR, Brown MB, 1995. Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota). Poole A, Gill F, eds. The Birds of North America. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1–28.
  6. Gubler DJ, 2007. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Clin Infect Dis 45: 1039–1046.
  7. United States Geological Survey, Historical West Nile Virus Maps. Available at: http://diseasemap.usgs.gov/wnv_historical.html. Accessed June 22, 2009.
  8. Brown CR, Sethi RA, 2002. Mosquito abundance is correlated with cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colony size. J Med Entomol 39: 115–120.
  9. Brown CR, Brown MB, 1996. Coloniality in the Cliff Swallow: The Effect of Group Size on Social Behavior. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  10. Stoner D, 1945. Temperature and growth studies of the northern cliff swallow. Auk 62: 207–216.
  11. Nemeth NM, Hahn DC, Gould DH, Bowen RA, 2006. Experimental West Nile virus infection in eastern screech owls (Megascops asio). Avian Dis 50: 252–258.
  12. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Komar N, Panella NA, Allen BC, Volpe KE, Davis BS, Roehrig JT, 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 4066–4071.
  13. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1995. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections. Lennette EH, Lennette DA, Lennette ET, eds. Arboviruses. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 189–212.
  14. Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Savage HM, Aspen SE, Farajollahi A, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Benedict M, Anderson M, McMillen L, Unnasch TR, 2004. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4: 71–82.
  15. Peterson AT, Vieglais DA, Andreasen JK, 2003. Migratory birds modeled as critical transport agents for West Nile virus in North America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 3: 27–37.
  16. Rappole JH, Hubálek Z, 2003. Migratory birds and West Nile virus. J Appl Microbiol 94: 47S–58S.
  17. Nemeth NM, Beckett S, Edwards E, Klenk K, Komar N, 2007. Avian mortality surveillance for West Nile virus in Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 431–437.
  18. Wheeler SS, Barker CM, Fang Y, Armijos MV, Carroll BD, Husted SR, Johnson WO, Reisen WK, 2009. Differential impact of West Nile virus on California birds. Condor 111: 1–20.
  19. Dohm DJ, O’Guinn ML, Turell MJ, 2002. Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 39: 221–225.
  20. Tiawsirisup S, Platt KB, Evans RB, Rowley WA, 2005. A comparison of West Nile virus transmission by Ochlerotatus trivittatus (COQ.), Culex pipiens (L.), and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 40–47.
  21. Turell MJ, O’Guinn M, Oliver J, 2000. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 413–414.
  22. Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW, 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 1385–1391.
  23. Beveroth TA, Ward MP, Lampman RL, Ringia AM, Novak RJ, 2006. Changes in seroprevalence of West Nile virus across Illinois in free-ranging birds from 2001 through 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 174–179.
  24. Godsey MS, Blackmore MS, Panella NA, Burkhalter K, Gottfried K, Halsey LA, Rutledge R, Langevin SA, Gates R, Lamonte KM, Lambert A, Lanciotti RS, Blackmore CGM, Loyless T, Stark L, Oliveri R, Conti L, Komar N, 2005. West Nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern United States, 2001. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 82–89.
  25. Komar N, Panella NA, Burns JE, Dusza SW, Mascarenhas TM, Talbot TO, 2001. Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 621–625.
  26. Bolling BG, Moore CG, Anderson SL, Blair CD, Beaty BJ, 2007. Entomological studies along the Colorado front range during a period of intense West Nile virus activity. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23: 37–46.
  27. Kent R, Juliusson L, Weissmann M, Evans S, Komar N, 2009. Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007. J Med Entomol 46: 380–390.
  28. Colton L, Nasci RS, 2006. Quantification of West Nile virus in the saliva of Culex species collected from the southern United States. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22: 57–63.
  29. Hutcheson HJ, Gorham CH, Machain-Williams C, Lorono-Pino MA, James AM, Marlenee NL, Winn B, Beaty BJ, Blair CD, 2005.ExperimentaltransmissionofWestNilevirus(Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) by Carios capensis ticks from North America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 293–295.
  30. Lawrie CH, Uzcategui NY, Gould EA, Nuttall PA, 2004. Ixodid and argasid tick species and West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 653–657.
  31. Loye J, 1985. The life history and ecology of the cliff swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 23: 133–139.
  32. Nemeth NM, Oesterle PT, Bowen RA, 2008. Passive immunity to West Nile virus provides limited protection in a common passerine species. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 283–290.
  33. Nemeth NM, Bowen RA, 2007. Dynamics of passive immunity to West Nile virus in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 310–317.
  34. Brown CR, Moore AT, Knutie SA, Komar N, 2009. Overwintering of infectious Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in Oeciacus vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in North Dakota. J Med Entomol 46: 391–394.
  35. Nemeth N, Gould D, Bowen R, Komar N, 2006. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species. J Wildl Dis 42: 1–13.
  36. Nemeth N, Young G, Ndaluka C, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Komar N, Bowen R, 2009. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Arch Virol 154: 783–789.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0136
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0136
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Mar 2009
  • Accepted : 31 Jul 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error