Volume 81, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


This study evaluated the association between infection and height in a population of schoolchildren of a low socioeconomic level regarding growth-related micronutrient status. It was a cross-sectional study of 685 children 5–13 years of age. Height and weight were recorded, a C urea breath test was performed for detection of , and a blood sample was obtained for determination of micronutrient status. infection was found to be associated with the height of children. Children with infection are, on average, 1.32 cm lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.22 to −0.42) in height than children without infection. There was an effect modification by age: for every one-year increase in age, height was 0.66 cm less (95% CI = −1.17 to −0.15) in children with infection. This finding suggests that infection has a negative effect on the growth of children.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Torres J, Pérez-Pérez G, Goodman KJ, Atherton JC, Gold BD, Harris PR, la Garza AM, Guarner J, Muñoz O, 2000. A comprehensive review of the natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. Arch Med Res 31: 431–469. [Google Scholar]
  2. Torres J, Leal-Herrera Y, Perez-Perez G, Gomez A, Camorlinga-Ponce M, Cedillo-Rivera R, Tapia-Conyer R, Muñoz O, 1998. A community-based seroepidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection in Mexico. J Infect Dis 178: 1089–1094. [Google Scholar]
  3. Olaiz-Fernández G, Rivera-Dommarco J, Shamah-Levy T, Rojas R, Villalpando-Hernández S, Hernández-Avila M, Sepúlveda-Amor J, 2006. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Cuernavaca, México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública.
  4. Bravo LE, Mera R, Reina JC, Pradilla A, Alzate A, Fontham E, Correa P, 2003. Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on growth of children: a prospective cohort study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 37: 614–619. [Google Scholar]
  5. Choe YH, Kim SK, Hong YC, 2000. Helicobacter pylori infection with iron deficiency anaemia and subnormal growth at puberty. Arch Dis Child 82: 136–140. [Google Scholar]
  6. Patel P, Mendall MA, Khulusi S, Northfield TC, Strachan DP, 1994. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood: risk factors and effect on growth. BMJ 309: 1119–1123. [Google Scholar]
  7. Raymond J, Bergeret M, Benhamou PH, Mensah K, Dupont C, 1994. A 2-year study of Helicobacter pylori in children. J Clin Microbiol 32: 461–463. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rivera JA, Hotz C, González-Cossío T, Neufeld L, García-Guerra A, 2003. The effect of micronutrient deficiencies on child growth: a review of results from community-based supplementation trials. J Nutr 133: 4010S–4020S. [Google Scholar]
  9. Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R, 1988. Anthropometric Standarization Reference Manual. II. Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
  10. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH, 2000. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320: 1240–1243. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, Jackson AA, 2007. Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 335: 194. [Google Scholar]
  12. Ortiz-Olvera Nayeli X, Morán Villota S, Gallardo Wong I, Blancas Valencia JM, Cabrera Muñoz L, 2007. Validation of a simplified 13C-urea breath test method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 99: 392–397. [Google Scholar]
  13. Cadranel S, Corvaglia L, Bontems P, Deprez C, Glupczynski Y, Van Riet A, Keppens E, 1998. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children with a standardized and simplified 13C-urea breath test. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 27: 275–280. [Google Scholar]
  14. Epple HJ, Kirstein FW, Bojarski C, Frege J, Fromm M, Riecken EO, Schulzke JD, 1997. 13C-urea breath test in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis and eradication. Correlation to histology, origin of ‘false’ results, and influence of food intake. Scand J Gastroenterol 32: 308–314. [Google Scholar]
  15. Rowland M, Lambert I, Gormally S, Daly LE, Thomas JE, Hetherington C, Durnin M, Drumm B, 1997. Carbon 13-labeled urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Pediatr 131: 815–820. [Google Scholar]
  16. Cohen JH, Haas JD, 1999. Hemoglobin correction factors for estimating the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women residing at high altitudes in Bolivia. Rev Panam Salud Publica 6: 392–399. [Google Scholar]
  17. World Health Organization, 1994. Report of WHO/UNICEF/ UNU Consultation on Indicators and Strategies for Iron Deficiency and Anemia Programmer. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  18. Gwatkin DR, Rustein S, Johnson K, Pande R, Wagstaff A, 2000. Socio-economic Differences in Health, Nutrition and Population (Multicountry Reports). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  19. Aiken LS, West SG, 1996. Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
  20. James W, Hardin, 1997. Panel Data Analysis Using GEE. UCLA: Academic Tecnology Services, Statistical Consulting Group. Available at: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/library/gee.htm. Accessed May 21, 2009.
  21. World Health Organization, 2007. Growth Reference Data for School-aged Children and Adolescents of 5–19 Years. Available at: www.who.int/growthref/en/. Accessed January 10, 2008.
  22. Perri F, Pastore M, Leandro G, Clemente R, Ghoos Y, Peeters M, Annese V, Quitadamo M, Latiano A, Rutgeerts P, Andriulli A, 1997. Helicobacter pylori infection and growth delay in older children. Arch Dis Child 77: 46–49. [Google Scholar]
  23. Fialho AM, Braga AB, Queiroz DM, Rodrigues MN, Herbster ID, Braga LL, 2007. The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and height in children from an urban community in north-east Brazil. Ann Trop Paediatr 27: 55–61. [Google Scholar]
  24. Mera RM, Correa P, Fontham EE, Reina JC, Pradilla A, Alzate A, Bravo LE, 2006. Effects of a new Helicobacter pylori infection on height and weight in Colombian children. Ann Epidemiol 16: 347–351. [Google Scholar]
  25. Sood MR, Joshi S, Akobeng AK, Mitchell J, Thomas AG, 2005. Growth in children with Helicobacter pylori infection and dyspepsia. Arch Dis Child 90: 1025–1028. [Google Scholar]
  26. Isenbarger DW, Bodhidatta L, Hoge CW, Nirdnoy W, Pitarangsi C, Umpawasiri U, Echeverria P, 1998. Prospective study of the incidence of diarrheal disease and Helicobacter pylori infection among children in an orphanage in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 796–800. [Google Scholar]
  27. Passaro DJ, Taylor DN, Meza R, Cabrera L, Gilman RH, Parsonnet J, 2001. Acute Helicobacter pylori infection is followed by an increase in diarrheal disease among Peruvian children. Pediatrics 108: 1–8. [Google Scholar]
  28. Arenillas P, Godoy F, Einisman F, García P, Harris D, 2002. Regulación de la respuesta inmune frente a la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Rev Chil Pediatr 73: 108–115. [Google Scholar]
  29. Lunn PG, 2000. The impact of infection and nutrition on gut function and growth in childhood. Proc Nutr Soc 59: 147–154. [Google Scholar]
  30. Kanani SJ, Poojara RH, 2000. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls. J Nutr 130: 452S–455S. [Google Scholar]
  31. Lawless JW, Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Kinoti SN, Pertet AM, 1994. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children. J Nutr 124: 645–654. [Google Scholar]
  32. Sungthong R, Mo-Suwan L, Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater AF, 2002. Once weekly is superior to daily iron supplementation on height gain but not on hematological improvement among schoolchildren in Thailand. J Nutr 132: 418–422. [Google Scholar]
  33. Baggett HC, Parkinson AJ, Muth PT, Gold BD, Gessner BD, 2006. Endemic iron deficiency associated with Helicobacter pylori infection among school-aged children in Alaska. Pediatrics 117: e396–e404. [Google Scholar]
  34. Choe YH, Kim SK, Hong YC, 2003. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency: seroprevalence study in 937 pubescent children. Arch Dis Child 88: 178. [Google Scholar]
  35. Süoglu OD, Gök e S, Saglam AT, Sökücü S, Saner G, 2007. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastroduodenal disease, epidemiologic factors and iron-deficiency anemia in Turkish children undergoing endoscopy, and impact on growth. Pediatr Int 49: 858–863. [Google Scholar]
  36. Yokota S, Konno M, Mino E, Sato K, Takahashi M, Fujii N, 2008. Enhanced Fe ion-uptake activity in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with iron-deficiency anemia. Clin Infect Dis 46: e31–e33. [Google Scholar]
  37. Choe YH, Kim SK, Son BK, Lee DH, Hong YC, Pai SH, 1999. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of Helicobacter pylori eradication for iron-deficiency anemia in preadolescent children and adolescents. Helicobacter 4: 135–139. [Google Scholar]
  38. Windle HJ, Kelleher D, Crabtree JE, 2007. Childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and growth impairment in developing countries: a vicious cycle? Pediatrics 119: e754–e759. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Feb 2009
  • Accepted : 12 Aug 2009

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error